Use the listening guides john coltrane is a towering

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JAZZ AND AVANT-GARDE JAZZ, COLEMAN’S STYLE AND AYLER’S STYLE. USE THE LISTENING GUIDES. JOHN COLTRANE IS A TOWERING FIGURE IN THE HISTORY OF JAZZ, a virtuoso player with an amazing musical mind. He has influenced practically all jazz players since his time, especially sax players. Among his pioneering contributions was the reintroduction of the soprano sax in jazz. A dense, improvisational style, a spiritual approach to jazz, and the use of multiphonics (producing more than one note on a winded instrument at the same time). Coltrane’s playing is encyclopedic. He finds a challenge or idea and takes it as far as he can, exploring all of its possibilities before moving on to a new idea or challenge. To do this requires a great imagination and musical skill, and Coltrane possessed both. In the first phase of his career, before 1960, Coltrane was fascinated with chord changes and the problems that they presented to the improviser. He set out to conquer this challenge by playing all of the possible notes and scales in any given chord, running the changes at an extremely fast pace. Coltrane created a style known as sheets of sound. In this style, notes cascade down in sheets over rapidly changing chords. To up the ante, Coltrane composed songs in which the chords change on practically every beat. Soloing in these songs is like walking across a fast moving ice flow and just as your foot touches down, the ground changes and another solution must be found. Excerpt
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from one of these compositions called Giant Steps. I will play the head melody and the beginning of Coltrane’s solo. Listen for the chord changes on every beat and Coltrane’s sheets of sound improvisation style. The second phase of his career is marked by his departure from Miles Davis’ sextet to form his own quartet. The members of this quartet: John Coltrane  –  tenor saxophone  and  soprano  saxophone McCoy Tyner  –  piano Jimmy Garrison  – double bass (1, 2, 3, 4, 7) Art Davis  –  double bass  (3, 5, 6) Elvin Jones  –  drums The modal jazz recordings made by this quartet are among the most famous in jazz. The song “My Favorite Things” showcases Coltrane’s improvisational style and his use of the soprano sax (sounds more pleasing than free jazz to me). Now lets hear another recording by Coltrane’s quartet. This one demonstrates Coltrane’s approach to modal jazz in its mature state. First, we hear modal improvisation. Second, we hear extended pedal points, or held base notes during this piece. Third is Coltrane’s encyclopedic approach to musical ideas. Just as he explored all of the possibilities for improvising over certain chord changes, he then pushed the limits of agility in running the changes. And here, he takes a short musical idea, or motivic cell, and repeats it in all possible keys. Coltrane also brings out a spiritual dimension to jazz in this recording through the titles of the songs on the album, but also through chanting. This chant used the same musical idea, or motivic cell, as the previous section. In these two examples by Coltrane and his quartet we hear a style that is
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Christopher Reinemann
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