-HIV treatments: drugs, and ART (antiretroviral therapy)-Infectivity is the ability of pathogens to invade and multiply in the host-Communication is the ability to spread from one individual to others and cause disease-Immunogenicity is the ability of pathogens to induce an immune response-Damaging tissues is the pathogen’s mechanism of action -Virulence is the capacity of a pathogen to cause severe disease-Ex: measles virus is low virulence but rabies virus is highly virulent -Etiology (cause) of a congenital immune deficiency is due to genetic defects -Newborns with hemolytic diseaseis due to being Rh positive -Symptoms of SLE type II hypersensitivity:-Anemia-Lymphopenia Chapter 9 Notes - Alarm stage - initial reaction of the body’s defenses that prepare the body to fight or flee from threat (ex: almost being in a car accident) - Resistance / adaptation - second step as the body attempts to sustain the challenge - Exhaustion - breakdown of compensatory mechanisms, when the response can no longer be sustained or is unadaptable - Arousal - occurs as stress is recognized - Reactive response - occurs following a stressful event - Anticipatory response - anticipation of experiencing events produces stress - Physiological response to a surprise: - Increased glucagon release - Increased lipolysis - Increased bronchoconstriction - Increased cortisol release - Epinephrine - enhances myocardial contractility - Oxytocin - activates receptors in the uterus - Prolactin - stimulates milk production after child birth - Somatotropin - activates protein and carbohydrates metabolism - Norepinephrine - regulars bp and promotes arousal, increased vigilance (awareness), increased anxiety - Antidiuretic hormones - regulates urine output - Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter - Cortisol - regulates glucocorticoids
- Stress induces stimulation that causes secretion of catecholamines, which are epinephrine, norepinephrine in the adrenal medulla and cortisol in the adrenal cortex - Stress induced catecholamines release from the adrenal medulla results in: - Elevated bp = vasoconstriction - Increased blood flow to the brain - Increased glucose production - Increased muscle contraction - Patient diagnosed with hormone secreting tumor of the adrenal cortex physiological response: - Increased cortisol leads to increased gastric secretions, to increased incidence of gastric ulcers - Hypertension is a result of increased cortisol - Increase of gastric secretions causes lipolysis - Nurses should monitor pain inhibition or analgesia of elevated B endorphins patients - Coping - managing stressful challenges -Stress age syndrome includes: -Nurse should monitor patient that uses repression to deal with psychological stress by:
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- Fall '16