While is can superficially appear to be the case its

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-- while is can superficially appearto be the case, it’s actually the individuals that benefit not the species or group (individual selection, not group selection).93
Amer. Sci.96: 380-389 (2008)Maybe not!94
Rainey, P. B. & Rainey, K. (2003). Evolution of cooperation and conflict in experimental bacterial populations. Nature 425: 72–74.group selectionorindividual selection?95
Rainey, P. B. & Rainey, K. (2003). Evolution of cooperation and conflict in experimental bacterial populations. Nature 425: 72–74.Cooperating groups are formed due to production of an adhesive polymer, which causes the interests of individuals to align with those of the groupPseudomonas fluorescens96
bacteria remove oxygen out of a liquid habitat, but a thin habitable layer with oxygen remains near the surface. some of the bacteria spontaneously develop a beneficial mutation: they secrete a polymer that enables bunches of individuals to form floating mats. Pseudomonas fluorescens97
as a mat, all the bacteria survive, even though most of them don’t contribute polymer. But if the “freeloaders” reproduce too many of their kind, the mat sinks and everybody dies! Thus, selection on freeloaders to reproduce less.among these bacteria, then, groups that contain enough “altruists” to float survive better than groups with fewer altruists than that minimum number. Pseudomonas fluorescens98
among these bacteria, then, groups that contain enough altruists to float survive better than groups with fewer altruists than that minimum number*. surviving groups grow and split up into daughter groups. Thus, altruistic individuals will benefit, despite the cost of expending resources to produce the polymer …. or reproducing less.Pseudomonas fluorescens(* looks like group selection – but benefits accrue to individuals) 99
FFFFFFFFAFFFFFAAFFFFAFFAFAAAFFAFFFF = freeloaderA = altruistAF100
FFFFFFFFAFFFFFAAFFFFAFFAFAAAFFAFFFF = freeloaderA = altruistAFWith too much“freeloader”reproduction101
Amer. Sci.96: 380-389 (2008)??102
“The new group selection (multilevel selection) and kin selection are just different ways of conceptualizing the same evolutionary dynamics … In all cases, where both methods have been used to look at the same problem, they yield identical results.”Kurzban, R., Burton-Chellew, M. N., & West, S. A. (2014). The Evolution of altruism in humans. Annual Review of Psychology. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015355103
Cooperation104
ooperation?But cooperation andeven self-sacrificedoes occur …..cooperative prey captureshared thermoregulationdefense of territoriessharing foodguarding and feeding youngparasite removalalarm callsaiding attacked conspecificsdying in defense of others …. 105
- cooperative prey capture – mutualism- not based on equal benefit106
ooperation?But cooperation andeven self-sacrificedoes occur …..cooperative prey captureshared thermoregulationdefense of territoriessharing foodguarding and feeding youngparasite removalalarm callsaiding attacked conspecificsdying in defense of others …. 107
ooperation?

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