goods manufacturing will continue its current decline due to increased job automation and international competition. Nearly two-thirds of projected job openings by 2010 will offer low pay and benefits, yet require on-the-job-training arising mostly from replacement needs (U.S. Department of Labor, 2003). Zemsky, Shapiro, Iannozzi, Cappelli & Bailey (1998) found 78% of U.S. companies were using lower-paid contract or contingent workers (project-based, temporary or independent contractors), with 40% of them expecting such use to grow. Today’s workplace reflects the impact of globalization, where worldwide competition to once-domestic markets has created new demands for higher productivity and lower costs to remain competitive with cheap labor outside the U.S. 3. Career patterns. Leach & Chakiris (1988) note the traditional linear career development model of education, employment and retirement likely accounts for less than one-third of all U.S. careers, and new ways of looking at adults’ developmental diversity are needed such as free-form (part-time work, entrepreneurial, consulting or volunteer) or mixed-form (transitions between linear and free-form, or unemployed/underemployed). Many job titles did not exist when current older workers made their initial career decisions (Robey & Russell, 1984). Women and minorities don’t typically follow a linear or life- span career as their career development is disproportionately influenced by their differential experience of home, school and workplace. Women’s lives are also more closely characterized by social interaction and personal relationships, thus affecting their career development with interruptions not reflected in traditional career development theories (Hughes & Smith, 1985; Eastmond, 1991; Sharf, 1997). As the U.S. workforce continues to diversify, people with differing individual value systems and unique needs will also enter occupations with varying expectations and rates of success (Isaacson & Brown, 2000), making career development a more customized process. 4. Workplace justice . Has career development been caught in the ideological debate over globalization, job access, employment discrimination and opportunity? As these characteristics dramatically increase in future decades, the impacts of globalization, discrimination, technology, workplace laws and a lack of dignity may pose new career development challenges (Herr, 2001; Santos, Ferreira & Chaves, 2001). Critics of globalization see the 21 st Century as ‘the new ruthless economy,’ characterized by a growth in inequality, a shift in power from labor to capital, and a proliferation of low-wage employment (The New York Review of Books, 1996). ). The 21 st century must also adapt to meet social justice needs of the new immigrants, poor youth, victims of discrimination, disability, economic status and others who face obstacles in their career development (Hartung & Blustein, 2002). Theories need updating that consider gender, age, race, social class, sexual orientation, socio-economic status and English language proficiency (Bierema, 1998) as well as in training and development opportunities (Knoke & Ishio, 1998). Career
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 8 pages?
- Fall '19