The weakness is due to hypocortisolism, not hyperkalemia. The weakness is due to hypocortisolism, not hypoglycemia. The weakness is due to hypocortisolism, not metabolic acidosis. REF: p. 471 47. What is the cause of the hyperpigmentation seen in people with Cushing syndrome? a. Abnormal levels of cortisol b. Permissive effects of aldosterone when cortisol levels are altered c. Elevated levels of ACTH
d. Hypersensitivity of melanocytes with sun exposure ANS: C Bronze or brownish hyperpigmentation of the skin, mucous membranes, and hair occurs when there are very high levels of ACTH. The pigmentation changes associated with Cushing and Addison are due to increased levels of ACTH, not cortisol. The pigmentation changes associated with Cushing and Addison are due to increased levels of ACTH, not aldosterone, which affects fluid balance. The pigmentation changes associated with Cushing and Addison are due to increased levels of ACTH, not hypersensivity of melanocytes. REF: p. 470 48. A 30-year-old female presents with hypertension, headache, tachycardia, impaired glucose tolerance, and weight loss. Which of the following diagnosis will the nurse see documented on the chart? a. Addison disease b. Conn disease c. Cushing disease d. Pheochromocytoma ANS: D Symptoms of pheochromocytoma include hypertension, palpitations, tachycardia, glucose intolerance, excessive sweating, and constipation.
Manifestations of Addison disease include weakness, fatigability, hypoglycemia and related metabolic problems, lowered response to stressors, hyperpigmentation, vitiligo, and manifestations of hypovolemia and hyperkalemia. Hypertension and hypokalemia are the hallmarks of Conn disease. Weight gain is the most common feature in Cushing disease and results from the accumulation of adipose tissue in the trunk, facial, and cervical areas. These characteristic patterns of fat deposition have been described as “truncal obesity,” “moon face,” and “buffalo hump.” REF: p. 472 49. A nurse wants to determine if there is kidney dysfunction in a patient with diabetes. Which of the following is the earliest manifestation? a. Polyuria b. Glycosuria c. Microalbuminuria d. Decreased glomerular filtration ANS: C Microalbuminuria is the first manifestation of kidney dysfunction. Polyuria occurs due to increased fluid in the vascular space, and microalbuminuria is the earliest manifestation. Glycosuria occurs due to hyperglycemia, but microalbuminuria is the first sign of kidney dysfunction. Decreased glomerular filtration can occur due to changes, but microalbuminuria is the first sign of kidney dysfunction.
REF: p. 467 50. Which of the following diseases should the nurse teach the patient to prevent as it is the ultimate cause of death in the patient with diabetes? a. Renal disease b. Stroke c. Cardiovascular disease d. Cancer ANS: C Cardiovascular disease is the ultimate cause of death in up to 75% of people with diabetes.
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- Fall '17
- keisha lovence