30 do later abuse their own children 4 times the

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30% do later abuse their own children 4 times the general population rate Family influence also appears in higher violence rates in cultures and in families with absentee fathers (Triandis, 1994) American children reared without fathers are about 7 times more likely to be abused, to drop out of school and to commit violent crimes (Lykken, 2000) Correlation between parental absence (usually father) and violence holds across races, income levels, education and location (Staub, 1996; Zill, 1988) Risk of problems increased following a parental breakup during middle childhood (Cherlin & others, 1998) The point is not that children from father-absent homes are doomed to become delinquent or violent Nurtured by a caring mother and extended family Most such children thrive Only a correlation: where and when fathers are absent the violence risk increases The culture In communities where “macho” images are admired Aggression is readily transmitted to new generations (Cartwright, 1975; Short, 1969) Broader culture also matters Sub-culture effect (Nisbett, 1990, 1993; Cohen, 1996; 1998) Within the United States, they report, the sober, cooperative White folk who settled New England and the Middle Atlantic region produced a different culture from that of the swashbuckling, honor-preserving White folk (many of them my own Scots-Irish ancestral cousins) who settled much of the South The former were farmer-artisans; the latter, more aggressive hunters and herders To the present day, American cities and areas populated by southerners have higher than average White homicide rates
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Not surprisingly, southern males are also more likely than northern males to perceive their peers as supporting aggressive responses (Vandello & others, 2008) o People learn aggressive responses both by experience and by observing aggressive models Aggressive acts are motivated by a variety of aversive experiences (Bandura, 1979) e.g. frustration, pain, insults Such experiences arouse us emotionally Whether we act aggressively depends on the consequences we anticipate Aggression is most likely when We are aroused It seems safe and rewarding to aggress What are some influences on aggression? - Aversive incidents o Pain Electric shocks, intense heat and psychological pain pain- attack response observed in rats Heightens aggressiveness in humans Students with water (Berkowitz & others, 1983) Had students hold one hand in either lukewarm water or painfully cold water Those whose hands were submerged in the cold water Reported feeling more irritable and more annoyed More willing to blast another person with unpleasant noise Proposed that aversive stimulation rather than frustration is the basic trigger of hostile aggression Frustration is certainly one important type of unpleasantness Any aversive event can incite an emotional outburst Even the torment of a depressed state increases the likelihood of hostile, aggressive behavior o Heat
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  • Fall '16
  • Relational aggression, Bushman,  Berkowitz

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