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support for the use of violence. Mandela refused the offer.Professor Dash asked me whether I [was encouraged by] the government’s intention of repealing the mixed-marriage laws and certain other apartheid [laws]. ‘This is a pinprick,’ I said. ‘It is not my ambition to marry a white woman or swim in a white pool. It is political equality that we want.’“”
Changes in South Africa, 1948-199425Desmond TutuOne black leader who came into prominence in the 1980s was Desmond Tutu. In 1978, he was appointed as the General Secretary of the South African Council of Churches. He opposed apartheid vigorously, becoming a leading spokesperson for the rights of black South Africans. In 1984, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace and in 1986, he was elected Archbishop of Cape Town – the first black person to lead the Anglican Church there. Being a charismatic person, he was always ready to condemn South Africa’s government, but it was very difficult for the government to imprison him.Losing controlBy the summer of 1985, it seemed that the government was losing control of areas such as Crossroads. During this time, violence developed between black people themselves. If a person had been working with the police, was a member of the black police, or was helping the government to control in any way, the unofficial penalty was a practice called necklacing. Objectors placed a car tyre around the person, doused him in petrol and lit a match. There was also fighting between different black tribes, especially between the ANC and the Inkatha Freedom Party under the leadership of Chief Buthelez who represented the Zulus.Botha declared a state of emergency in South Africa in June 1986, which meant the police had the right to arrest and imprison people without trial. The police were using more force and violence against black people during this period.
26Economic pressuresFollowing pressures from anti-apartheid organisations, the demand for economic sanctions against South Africa increased further. In 1985, one of the large American banks refused to lend money to the South African government until it abolished the apartheid system. Many other large banks followed suit. Following the decision of the Chase Manhattan Bank of New York to pull out of the country, the value of the rand fell 35% in a short space of time, and the South African Stock Market had to cease trading for four days. Over the next two years, a number of large companies withdrew from South Africa, including Esso and Barclays Bank. In 1986, the government of America passed the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act, encouraging companies to refuse to trade with South Africa; that same year, the USA and the European Community passed policies increasing the sanctions on South Africa.The schoolsSouth African schools continued to be centres for protesting against the government and the apartheid system. Many children refused to go to school, and in a number of cases, the schools had to close due to violence.