Similarities and DifferencesPyelonephritis is a kidney infection. Cystitis usually presents with frequency, urgency andburning during urination. Pyelonephritis can have lower abdominal pain and a low-grade fever. Upper UTI are have symptoms of high fever, flankpain and nausea or vomiting. Cystitis is an infection in lower part of the bladder. Similarly they both present with burning upon urination and may sometime have blood in the urine.FactorsFemales are more prone to developing UTIs due to the shortened length to the urethra and anatomical position allowing for vaginal and anal microbial introduction into the urethra. This is not the case for men because the urethra is longer making it more difficult for microbial introduction. Behavior is another factor for UTIs. Poor hygiene, sexually active individuals, spermicidal users, and those relying on indwelling catheters find themselves more prone to UTIs. Patient education for spermicidal users can aid in decreasing this factor toward UTIs by explaining other options such as condoms, oral contraceptives, or other types of contraceptives (intrauterine device or diaphragm). For sexually active individuals it is important to teach voiding after sex and the dangers of anal sex increasing the possibility of cross-contamination. Proper hygiene education is a must, especially for small children learning to toilet train (emphasizing the front to back wipe) and new parents learning to teach toileting with an emphasis on hand washing techniques. Treatment of UTI differs with gender, and type and severity of the infection. Antibiotic therapy with a three-day course of trimethoprim or nitrofurantoin should be considered in individuals who are not pregnant women under 65 when there are three or more typical symptoms.ReferencesHuether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology(6thed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.Imam, T.H. (2016). Introduction to urinary tract infections (UTIs). Retrieved from: -utis/introduction-to-urinary-tract-infections-utisResponse #2
WEEKLY DISCUSSIONS9Urinary tract infections (UTI) are important to diagnose correctly as urosepsis is the cause of up to 40% of septic shock cases, and can cause permanent kidney damage (Huether, & McCance, 2017). Other complications of UTIs is that they can reoccur, cause obstruction due to urethral narrowing, and children can have low birthrates from mothers with UTIs (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). A final issue with UTI is that it contributes to antibiotic resistance when treated unnecessarily with an antibiotic, or when the wrong medicine is prescribed (Huether, & McCance, 2017). ReferencesHuether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
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