32. What are the functions of anastomosis blood vessels? Where can you find them? A connection (an anastomosis) between two blood vessels, such as between arteries (arterio-arterialanastomosis), between veins (veno-venous anastomosis) or between an artery and a vein (arterio-venous anastomosis). 33.Explain how portal circulation is different from regular circulation. In which organs can you find it? 34.List the functions of lymphatic system 35.List the organs and structures of lymphatic system.
36. Give definition of the following terms: immunity, self-tolerance, susceptibility, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, pathogen, infection, antigen, cellular immunity, humoral immunity, immune memory, immunocompetence. Immunity- the ability of an organism to resist a particular infection or toxin by the action of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells. Self-tolerance- failure (a good thing) to attack the body's own proteins and other antigens. If the immune system should respond to "self", an autoimmune disease may result. Susceptibility- the state or fact of being likely or liable to be influenced or harmed by a particular thing. Innate immunity- nonspecific defense mechanisms that come into play immediately or within hours of an antigen's appearance in the body. These mechanisms include physical barriers such as skin, chemicals in the blood, and immune system cells that attack foreign cells in the body. Adaptive immunity- protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- lymphocytes following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by immunological memory. Pathogen- a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease Infection. Antigen- a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies. Cellular immunity- response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
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