use items can have both a civil or commercial end-use as well as a military
application. Jet engines and associated technologies are an example of a dual-use
Civil/commercial commodities that require special controls
The Department of Commerce authority for export authorization is the Export Administration
Act (EAA). The EAA is implemented via the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and the
Commerce Control List (CCL).
Department of Defense
Because it is not a licensing authority, it can neither approve nor deny any export license
requests. DoD does review selected license requests submitted to State and Commerce
when these organizations know there are national security implications.
When considering U.S. foreign policy and national security concerns, both the State and
Commerce Departments pay close attention to requirements and conditions associated with:
There are three primary types of ITAR export authorizations: licenses, agreements, and
A registered U.S. exporter must obtain an International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR)
export authorization prior to export of a defense article, service, or technical information.
Once an export authorization is granted, it remains valid for the period of time as depicted in
Export control violations are very serious. The diagram shows International Traffic in Arms
Regulations (ITAR) penalties.
Export Administration Regulations (EAR) penalties are similar as they also include fines,
imprisonment, and debarment.
Let’s try and tie all of this together. The remainder of this lesson will
describe the major
activities accomplished in each phase of the Defense Acquisition System. The lesson will
the international considerations in each phase, and that opportunities for
international cooperation exist throughout the entire process. Later in Module 2, we start to
build our acquisition strategy and will revisit some of this information.
During the Production and Deployment (P&D) there are three basic mechanisms for the
transfer of U.S. developed defense articles or production capability to other nations. These
include foreign purchase or co-assembly via FMS or DCS, foreign co-production via FMS or
DCS, and cooperative production.
The purpose of the Production and Deployment (P&D) phase is to produce and deliver
requirements-compliant products to receiving military organizations