4 existing data to test other theories sociology is a

Info icon This preview shows pages 4–6. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
(4) Existing data. - To test other theories Sociology is a science, and the rules of scientific research guide the efforts of sociologist to discover the principles of social organization and the sources of social constraints on human behavior. Chapter 2 - The Structure of Social Groups Vocabulary Terms: 1. Social Organization - The order of social group as evidenced by the positions, roles, norms, and other constraints that control behavior and ensure predictability. 2. Social Structure - The patterned and recurrent relationships among people and parts in a social organization. 3. Culture - The knowledge that the members of a social organization share. 4. Aggregate - A collection of individuals who happen to be at the same place at the same time. 5. Group - A collection of two or more people who, because of sustained interaction, have evolved a common culture. 6. Social Interaction - When individuals act toward or respond to each other. 7. Social Relationship - Occurs when two or more people engage in enduring social interaction. 8. Values - The shared criteria used in evaluating objects, ideas, act, feelings, or events as to their relative desirability, merit, or correctness. 9. Social Roles - The expectations of what individuals should do in various statuses. 10. Norms - Cultural roles that specify appropriate and inappropriate behavior (in other words, the shared expectations for behavior) 11. Folkways - Relatively unimportant rules that if violated are not severely punished. 12. Mores - Important norms, the violation of which results in severe punishment 13. Status - A socially defined position in a social organization. 14. Hierarchy - The arrangement of people or objects in order of importance. 15. Master Status - A status that has exceptional importance for social identity, overshadowing other status. 16. Role - The behavioral expectations and requirements attached to a position in a social organizations. 17. Sanctions - Social rewards or punishments for approved or disappointed behavior. 18. Social Group - Two or more people who identify with each other and who share a distinctive set of relationships. 19. Primary Groups - Small groups characterized by intimate, face-to-face interaction. 20. Secondary Groups - Large, impersonal, and formally organized groups. 21. Bureaucracy - A system of administration that is characterized by specialized roles, explicit rules, and a hierarchy of authority. 22. McDonaldization - George Ritzer’s term for the process by which the principles of fast-food restaurants are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world. 23. “Iron cage” of rationality - The dehumanizing aspects of bureaucracy. Max Weber saw bureaucracies as cages with people trapped in them, denied of their basic humanity.
Image of page 4

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
24. Egoistic Suicide - Durkheim’s finding that people lacking ties to social groups are more susceptible to suicide than are those with strong group attachments.
Image of page 5
Image of page 6
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern