● According to this theory, you quickly search through your library of exemplars to compare it to the current object. Once you find the exemplar that is sufficiently similar to the current object, you identify it as being a member of the same category. Prototype vs Exemplar Theory ● Prototype → average ● Exemplar → library of all exemplars ● Doctors influenced by more recent experiences is evidence for Exemplar Theory. The Development of Categorization Children and Categories ● There is evidence to suggest that children as young as 3 are able to understand general categories. ○ Ex: if you tell a child a fact about its dog, it can generalize this fact to pertaining to all dogs. ● Children also seem to have a deeper understanding of categories. ● Seems as though children are able to understand something about the innate properties of a given category. Animal Categorization Baboon Categorization ● Scientists taught baboons to classify objects as being either ‘food’ or ‘non-food’. ○ They learnt this distinction pretty quickly ○ Were able to categorize new objects into these categories with 90% accuracy. ● Then they were taught to identify if two objects belonged to the abstract categories of ‘same’ or ‘different’. ○ Ex: food + food → same ○ Ex: food + non-food → different
○ Once again reached 90% accuracy. ● These experiments provide evidence that basic categorization systems exist in non- human animals. Conclusions ● Relates to the social phenomenon of stereotyping.
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- Fall '09
- Psychology, Joe Kim