7. Promote international consciousness and foster positive attitudes towards other nations. 8. Promote positive attitudes towards good health and environmental protection. The right to education in Kenya is provided for under the Constitution. Key international instruments defining the right to education include: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). UNESCO Convention Against Discrimination in Education. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights. The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. The Government and its partners have continued to invest heavily in formal education. In the last decade, for instance, public spending in education in Kenya as a proportion of GDP increased from 5.1% in 1980 / 1981 to 8% in 1997 / 1998. Similarly, the MoE recurrent expenditures share of the total Government recurrent expenditures rose from 35% in 1993 / 1994 to 38% in 1998 / 1999. Reflected in monetary terms, the Government and development partners invest heavily in Dr. Geoffrey Wango Page 2 Education in Kenya Under the New Constitution 2011
New Constitution and Education education and this category of the economy has continued to attract increased spending. Compared to other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa with similar GDP per capita, Kenya spends considerable more on education in relation to total Government expenditure and Gross National Product. This notwithstanding, the bulk of the Ministry of Education (MoE) recurrent expenditure goes to teacher salaries which stands at about 80 billion. It is only under KESSP that resources were directed at teaching-learning resources and other programmes. There has been several salary increases in 1997 / 1998, pushing the wage bill to 82% of total spending. Currently, the teachers wage bills in primary and secondary education subsectors take 95% of recurrent expenditure. Enrolment at all levels including primary, secondary and university has continued to increase over the years as well as educational institutions. The gross enrolment rate at primary level in 1998 shows a near gender parity (49% girls and 51% boys) at the national level. However, the situation has been worst for North Eastern Province where girls comprised 16.8% and boys 32.0% (total 24.8%). In Coast Province, boys comprised 79.6% and girls 66.9% (total 73.3%), and in Nairobi, boys comprised 61.6% and girls 52.8% (56.9%). There has been a significant improvement over the years with several intervention strategies adopted by Government and communities to enhance the education of girls and boys. Table 1.1. Primary Gross Enrolment rate and Net Enrolment Rate, 2004 – 2010 Indicator 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 GER 108.0 107.6 103.8 108.9 109.8 110.0 109.8 NER 84.5 82.8 83.5 91.6 92.5 92.9 91.4 Table 1.2. Secondary Gross Enrolment Rate and Net Enrolment Rate, 2004 – 2010 Indicator 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 GER 28.0 28.8 32.4 38.0 42.5 45.3 47.8 NER 19.4 20.5 22.5 24.2 28.9 35.8 32.0 Table 1.3. Pupil Completion Rate and Primary to Secondary Transition Rate, 2004-2010 Indicator 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
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