The first sewers were privately owned and served the

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The first sewers were privately owned and served the purpose of draining water from cellars and low lying areas into nearby surface waters. Problems arose due to the nuisance caused by constructing these sewers as well as disagreements over ownership rights. Up to this point, water entering this system was from flooded cellars, yards and streets. In 1833, however, sanitary waste was allowed into the system. The practice proliferated throughout cities in particular and in just one year later, they encouraged adding rainwater from roofs to the system to assist in flushing the sewers of sanitary waste. Disposal of sanitary sewage by dilution continued to be the method used by American cities. The large rivers in our country made the dilution process of disposal a very common and effective one. By 1926, those cities had sewage treatment plants. Of those facilities, nearly two-thirds of the tributary sewage was treated with Imhoff tanks. The sewage disposal had definitely advanced. Cities and towns were beginning to know and understand an actual connection between sewage and the sources of drinking water and how it affected their well being. The choice of how to clean up after yourself was also being introduced and innovated. The first packaged toilet paper was the 1857 invention of American, Joseph Gayety and called Gayety’s Medicated Paper. In 1880, the British Perforated Paper Company created a paper product to be used for wiping after using the toilet that came in boxes of small pre-cut squares. In
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1879, the Scott Paper Company began selling the first toilet paper on a roll, however, toilet paper in roll form did not become common until 1907. Standard Sanitary Manufacturing Company, founded in 1875, merged with several other small plumbing manufacturers in 1899. Standard Sanitary pioneered many of the plumbing product improvements introduced in the early part of this century including the one-piece toilet, built-in tubs, combination faucets (which mix hot and cold water) and tarnish-proof, corrosion- proof chrome finishes for brass fittings. By 1929, Standard had become the world's largest producer of bathroom fixtures. That same year, the Standard Sanitary Corporation merged with American Radiator Company to form the American Radiator and Standard Sanitary Corporation. The corporation adopted the name "American Standard" in 1967. Technology is an ever growing field and with that we as humans want to use that to assist daily lives and resources. The 1992 U.S. Congress passed legislation requiring new toilets to drain just 1.6 gallons per flush, instead of the average 3.5 gallons. Manufacturers, such as American Standard, are seeing how low toilets can go to conserve water resources and save consumers money without sacrificing performance. Computer modeling and design techniques, such as critical fluid dynamic analysis, allow the sanitation researchers to digitally flush toilets and determine how to improve performance with minimal water before any physical models are even built.
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  • Spring '07
  • Pilat
  • English, Ode, Sewage treatment, Toilet, Ecological sanitation, mobile toilet innovation

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