Tidal volume TV normal breaths volume of gas either inspired or exhaled during

Tidal volume tv normal breaths volume of gas either

This preview shows page 16 - 24 out of 24 pages.

Tidal volume (TV) (normal breaths) : volume of gas either inspired or exhaled during each breath Functional residual capacity (FRC) (max volume exhaled) : volume of gas remaining in lungs when lungs & chest wall at end-expiratory position
Image of page 16
Figure 12-5
Image of page 17
Clubbing Figure 12- 9
Image of page 18
Nursing Goals Promote oxygenation Prevent infection Prevent further lung damage Promote rehabilitation
Image of page 19
Common Respiratory Patient Care Problems Ineffective airway clearance Cough medicine can cause r/t soothing nerve endings in throat Water should not be taken immediately after a cough syrup In bacterial and chronic resp diseases, sputum is foul smelling Frequent mouth care helps remove pathogenic micro- organisms from oral cavity and diminishes possibility they will be aspirated Especially important after turn, cough, deep breathing exercises
Image of page 20
More problems Ineffective breathing patterns High fowlers best facilitates breathing Orthopnea : ability to breath only in upright position Full stomach contributes to dyspnea Small frequent feeding preferred Pursed lip and diaphragmatic breathing may lessen dyspnea Help open with pressure
Image of page 21
Orthopneic position Figure 12- 11
Image of page 22
And then. . . CO2 is respiratory stimulant and body responds to increase of CO2 by increasing resp rate to “blow off” CO2 Hypercapnia : retention of excessive CO2 Causes: Narcotic overdose Hypocapnia : Deficit of CO2 from hyperventilation Causes : Increased metabolic rate (fever & anxiety) salicylate overdose, and improper use of mechanical ventilation Respiratory failure: ABGs used to determine Present when PaO2 < 50 and PCO2 >50 Will lead to cardiac arrest from resp acidosis if not corrected
Image of page 23
Abnormal Respiratory Patterns – know these pg 274 Biot's respiration (head injuries )– fast, deep irregular respirations Cheyne‑Stokes respiration (near death) – become faster and deeper, then slower and shallower with periods of apnea Kussmaul's respirations (diabetics or ketoacidosis) – fast, deep respirations with no pause Apneustic respiration (apnea) – ????? You should know this (Also refer to Figure 12-13.)
Image of page 24

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 24 pages?

  • Fall '19
  • cough, Upper Respiratory, of Respiratory Disorders

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes