World War I. Western governments began to claim to act for the nation and worked to push national loyalties through various means, such as media and rituals. Nationalism took a variety of ideologies. Liberal democrats saw nationalism as support for wider political involvement due to its focus on the people; this was civic nationalism, identifying the nation with a certain territory and that people could assimilate into the culture. Nationalism was sometimes also identified with race and could combat feminism and socialism due to their inherent social divisions. Nationalism also spread to other places. Japan and Egypt both had nationalist movements against European involvement. The idea of the nation also emerged in India during the British Raj (expressed by the Indian National Congress), the Ottoman Empire, West Africa, and China (where some felt attacked by foreign rule and Europe). Japan and Egypt gained support, but the other movements would have to wait a century. First-Wave Feminism A third effect of the Atlantic revolutions was the rise of the first-wave feminist movement. This was the first time a large amount of women organized and criticized patriarchy. Thinkers such as Condorcet had already challenged it, and the French Revolution showed that societies could be reformed. Women such as Mary Wollstonecraft argued using the French ideals of liberty and equality. In the growing industrial middle class, women found greater education and freedom from the home. Women worked in temperance movements, charities, abolitionism, missionary work, and unions. The first organized expression of feminism was the Seneca Falls Convention in New York in 1848. Feminism became a transatlantic movement, women across the ocean corresponding and attending the same conferences. The major goals were education and professions, the more radical also focusing on fashion or keeping their surnames. By the 1870s, they focused on suffrage and began to grow, with middle and working class people joining the more well-educated women. Most used peaceful protest, though some organizations were violent. By 1900, this mass movement had given a small group of women entrance to universities, and female literacy was improving. In the United States, women gained more property and divorce rights, and women got jobs in medicine, teaching, and social work, following people like Florence Nightingale and Jane Addams. New Zealand was the first country to give universal female suffrage, in 1893, and Finland followed in 1906; most countries didn’t join until after World War I. The movement also prompted greater discussion about the role of women, such as in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House . People also began to discuss taboo topics such as birth control and homosexuality. Socialists were divided on the movement’s effect on their cause. Feminists were also divided on the basis of feminism; some used equality, while others, maternal feminists, used the maternal role of females.
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- Fall '15
- Rudy Domingo
- Industrial Revolution