environment in hive does multiple times invertase is added during this time to

Environment in hive does multiple times invertase is

This preview shows page 4 - 5 out of 12 pages.

environment in hive, does multiple times -invertase is added during this time to break down sucrose to fructose and glucose -nectar droplet gets deposited nto cell inside hive -passive evaporation: occurs inside hive, food processing bees fan and ventilate -cells with ripened honey (<20% water) are covered with a wax capping -fan and ventilation also occurs at hive entrance, regulates brood temperature and produces air currents -pollen also gets stored in cells and covered with honey to prevent fermentation -when wax glands of workers develop (12-15 days), they build comb and cap honey and brood cells, shape using legs, eat 8kg of honey to produce 1 kg of wax -10-20% of bees become guardians, stay at entrance, intercept bees to smell them, may altert and recruit other members via alarm pheromone or attraction pheromone from Nasonove gland and fan -5% are undertakers, remove dead bees -bees forage fro 21 days and do this until they die, collect pollen, nectar and propolis -sequential activities may change according to hive demands -anthropomorphic comparisons do not allow objective interpretation -queen is not the dictator/ruler -bees act without awareness and consequence, respond to environmental stimuli with stereotyped behaviours -honey bee behaviour results from: -stimuli -genetic predisposition -physiological development -hormone regulation -stimuli can be internal (pheromones, visual, temp changes), or external (flower odour, weather), can learn from stimuli, able to perceive colony needs via patrolling -variability in genes, high diversity because multiple mating behaviour of queens (polyandry), bee families composed of subfamilies or patrilines of half sisters (ex those with higher sensitivity to dead bees become undertakers first) -physiology of workers changes with age, glands develop at different times, hormones, foragers have high levels of juvenile hormones -bees vary in sensitivity to stimuli, some have low threshold of response, specialization = higher productivity -bees build many combs in parallel hanging vertically, 9mm apart, hexagon cells angled slightly upwards -3 types of cells: -worker cells: 0.5cm in diameter, used to rear workers or store pollen/nectar -drone cells: larger, ear drones and food storage -queen cells: peanut shaped along edges -brood is stored in centre, 35*C -population and activities of bees vary with season and food availability -produce more eggs in summer, must store food for winter -winter: bees cluster to stay warm when temp is below 13*C, move to produce heat (25*C), late winter queen resumes egg laying, nurse bees perform duties, low population, old bees die -spring: population grows rapidly, may swarm if new queen bee is reared, old queen leaves with half of the hive -summer: population reaches peak, gather food and store -fall: pop declines, drones expelled, build up fat reserves -bee colony consumes 20-30kg of pollen, 60-80kg honey per year, 1 million trips to flowers for pollen, 4 million trips for honey -scout bee finds food source and fills her honey stomach and/or pollen basket
Image of page 4

Want to read all 12 pages?

Image of page 5

Want to read all 12 pages?

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 12 pages?

  • Fall '12
  • ErnestoGuzman
  • Beekeeping, Honey bee

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes