race separation o Only the same species can mate with one another o Aryan groups produce higher value and culture o Dangers of inferior groups and high cultures declining o Racial mixture is downfall of superior species 6. “Program of the National Socialist Workers’ Party” (the 25 point-plan) - Date : 1920 - Author : NSDAP - Purpose : to attract people to follow their ideals and hate Jews - Historical Context : o nation + race interlink, opposition to democracy o hate Versailles and Jews in press + money - Key Ideas : o #3 Lebensraum or “living space” – nation grows, needs more land
o #10 banking, usury, #11 can’t exploit by taking interest, #12 Jews profit from war, #23 newspaper only German so no fake news Key Themes 1. Anti-Judaism a. Theology that Christianity supersedes Judaism and that the new testament replaced the old one b. Low position because Jews refuse to embrace the truth and that the synagogue is unable to “see the light” c. Examples: Judensau-Jewish Sow, Simon of Trent, Desecration of the Host 2. Modern Antisemitism a. Dislike/opposition of Jews based on certain categories that define their presence in society b. Nazi’s antisemitism different from previous, religious forms of anti-Judaism but its proponents still drew on those traditional hostilities 3. Evolution of Racial Thought & its Influence on Hitler’s ideas (Scientific Racism) a. Phrenology (study of skull) and physiognomy (geography/balance of face) i. Physiognomy: Robert Knox use “facial angle in 1862 comparing the profiles of Negro, European, and Orangutan ii. Implies that negro and primitive creature are on the same level because of similar facial features iii. Phrenology: skull is a guide to mental abilities and traits of character iv. Break down into different components of human character b. Comparative Linguistics i. Compare languages using culture creativity ii. San Script (original from Aryan) is the best c. Anthropology i. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach: white degenerate to four other groups with different colors and shapes and features but differences aren’t permanent and can change if put in different climate zones, people not born with lower quality ii. Carl Gustav Carus: Day people, night people, and twilight people, introduces racial hierarchy so exterior determine interior iii. Arthur de Gobineau 4. Hitler’s worldview (race and space) a. Humanity was engaged in struggle between “races” or communities of “blood” b. “Pure Germans”, members of the so-called Aryan race needed space to expand and grow (don’t expand then doomed to disappear) c. Jews as evil enemies of virtue and honor (political = conspiracy, and cultural) d. Jewish = everything he considered negative e. Full of internal contradictions: weak yet sexual predators, inferior idiots yet cunning intelligence f. Only war would redeem the Aryan race, sense of urgency g. Not consistent with Nazi’s party view (25-point plan and colleagues)
h. If a race is to survive, must always be expanding i. Fall of Rome because it degenerates – stopped growing internally or race
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- Spring '07
- Adolf Hitler, Nazism, Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg