Communication Technologies and Standards_IEEE.pdf

With k approximation where k is the number of

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with K-approximation, where K is the number of constraints) [27]. A QoS requirement usually includes specifications, like average delay, jitter and connection outage probability. To de- rive the QoS requirement, it is important to describe the prob- abilistic dynamics of the power system, to evaluate the impact of different QoS specifications on the smart grid system and to derive the QoS requirement from the corresponding impact. The power price is typically determined by locational margin price (LMP) [28] driven by the load that varies with time. A constrained optimization problem can be used to derive the LMP from the load and other parameters, where the Lagrange factors of the constraints are considered as prices. To efficiently link together the large number of smart grid components, a powerful data communications infrastructure will be provided. It is expected that part of this infrastructure will make use of the power distribution lines themselves as communications carriers using PLC technology [29]. It is also expected to have a combination of wireless technologies to establish a reliable communications infrastructure. Also, recent standardization efforts under the umbrella of IEEE (P1901.2), ITU (ITU-G.hnem), and others are dedicated to PLC tech- nology for Smart Grid applications. One of the challenges of employing PLC in power distribu- tion grids is multihop transmission message routing. The basic idea is that network nodes, i.e., PLC enabled devices, act as repeaters of messages in order to achieve sufficient coverage [30], [31]. The focus in these two previous studies is on reli- able delivery of messages taking into account unpredictable and possible sudden changes of communications links and network topology. In this regard, for flooding of messages, the concept of single-frequency network (SFN) transmission is presented in [30] and [31]. In [32], the problem of routing in PLC networks is revised taking into account that network nodes are static and thus, their location is known a priori . In other words, the nodes know in which direction a message is intended to flow. More specifically, if a node receives a packet it can decide whether to forward it or not. Such routing algorithms are known as geo- graphic routing in the wireless communications literature [33], where they have been applied mainly in the context of wireless sensor networks. These algorithms present high performance for the application at hand: they close the gap between flooding on the one hand and improved shortest path routing on the other. In [34], the implementation of a smart monitoring system over a wireless sensor network is presented, with particular em- phasis on the creation of a solid routing infrastructure through the routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks (RPL), whose definition is currently being discussed within the IETF ROLL working group. RPL was designed in order to match the requirements of networks characterized by low-power supplies and by deployment in lossy environments. This involves both
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  • One '14
  • smart grid, Power line communication

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