Mongol princess loved her husband and his land died

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Mongol princessLoved her husband and his landDied during childbirthKing lost interest in life, rulingEmpress Ki (d. 1370)Koryo woman from family with long history of government service
Sent as tribute payment and begane as lowly serving girlWon attention of emperor Toghun Temur Khan (age 15)Emperor said to have favored painting, poetry, astronomyKi said to have been beautiful, accomplished in arts and educationStrife with Empress Danasiri and then Empress BayanEventually became Secondary Consort and then Primary Imperial Consort (1366)Empress Bureau established under Empress KiPatronized Buddhism in Yuan and KoryoKi sought allies among Korean-born eunuchs and other supporters at court“Empress Ki maintained many Koryo beauties in her palace. When great ministers grew powerful [she] would send them one of these women.” (Robinson, 8)Ki’s parents given extraordinary prestige in KoryoSon Ayushiridar (b. 1339) became Crown Prince in 1354 and later emperor of a much diminished empirePrince learned Uighur script used to write Mongolian, classical Chinese, Buddhist texts as well as Confucian teachingsKi fled with husband and son to Steppes in 1368Ki’s brothers exploited her influenceOlder brother Ki Ch’ol listed in History of Koryo in “traitors” section; some brothers later executed10/27/14 NOTESWomen in ChosonChoson (1392-1910)Confucianization of societyChanges in social customsLegal reformsIncreasing restrictions on womenExemplary daughters, mothers, wives, daughters-in-lawConfucianism: 3 bondsA place for everyone and everyone in his/her placeThree bonds (and corresponding one-way responsibilities1.Minister must be loyal to ruler2.Son must be filial to father3.Wife must be faithful to husbandConfucianism: 5 relationshipsFive Relationships (and corresponding reciprocal responsibilities)1.Morality between ruler & minister2.Affection between father & son3.Separation between husband & wife4.Order between elder & younger brothers5.Trust between friends
Confucianism: 3 FollowingsA woman’s Three Followings1.In childhood, obey father2.In marriage, obey husband (mother-in-law)3.In old age [widowhood], obey sonConfucianism and divorce Seven “outs” [grounds for divorce]1.No sons2.Adultery3.Incurable disease4.In-law’s wishes5.Jealousy6.Talkativeness7.TheftConfucianism and divorce, cont.Three “not outs” [reasons barring divorce except in cases of adultery and incurable disease]oWoman has observed 3-year mourning for parents-in-lawoShe has not natal family to return tooHousehold has become rich after the marriageConfucianism: women and divorceWoman’s right to divorce: only her natal family could sue on her behalf if:oHusband’s desertion or disappearance of three years or moreoWife receives permanent injury, but husband’s consent still requiredChallenging ConfucianismBut women also challenged Confucian normsIntellectual activities, religious and social movementsWomen’s intellectual activitesSim Saimdang (1504-1551), artistHo Nansorhon (1563-1589), poet

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