Increased turnover job dissatisfaction low

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increased turnover, job dissatisfaction, low productivity and an increase in overall costs of the organization. All these negative consequences can be avoided with the help of proper job design. 12.2 OBJECTIVES After reading this lesson, you should be able to To know about job design. To know the process involved in job design. To know job Enrichment, Job Enlargement, and Job Rotation. 12.3 CONTENTS 12.3.1 Approaches to Designing Jobs 12.3.2 Meaning and Scope of Job Design 12.3.1 Approaches to Designing Jobs There are three important approaches to job design viz., 1. Engineering approach, 2. Human approach and 3. The job characteristic approach. 1. Engineering Approach (F.W Taylor, 1911) The most prominent single element in the Engineering approach, envisaged by F.W. Taylor and others, was the task idea. “The work of every workman is fully planned out by the management at least one day in advance and each man receives in most cases complete written instructions, describing in detail the task which be is to accomplish. This task specifies not only what is to be done but now it is to be done and the exact time allowed for doing it”. The principles offered by scien tific management to job design can be summarized thus: Work should be scientifically studied. Taylor advocated fragmentation and routinisation of work to reap the advantages of specification. Work should be arranged so that workers can be efficient. Employees selected for work should be matched to the demands of the job. Employees should be trained to perform the job. Monetary compensation should be used to reward successful performance of the job. These principles to job design seem to be quite rational and appealing because they point toward increased organizational performance. Specification and
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105 routinisation over a period of time result in job incumbents’ becoming experts rather quickly, leading to higher levels of output. Despite the assumed gains in efficiency behavioural scientists have found that some job incumbents dislike specialized and routine jobs. In the course of a study of 180 auto assembly line workers, one worker lamented: “what I can’t get used to is the monotony. The job gets sickening, day in, day out, plugging in ignition wires. I get through with one job and have another one staring me in the face”. More recently a steel worker complained that the problem with narrowly defined jobs is that they required ‘arms and hands but no brainwork’. Problems with engineering approach. After listening to several complaints from employees about their highly specialised jobs, Walker and Guest indicated the problems with job specialisation thus: Repetition: Employees performed a few tasks repeatedly. This quickly led the employee to become very bored with the job. There was no challenge to the employee to learn anything new or to improve the job.
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