1929: Tribal rebellion in Afghanistan forces Amanullah Khan to flee the country.After a year of civilwar, Nadir Khan, Amanullah's former minister of war, is crowned King of Afghanistan. King NadirShah's reactionary measures undo Amanullah's reforms and reinstate customary Afghan laws and practices.August 1929: Palestinian Arabs attack Jews following disputes over prayer rightsto the Wailing Wall.In 1928, Arab Muslims and Jews in Jerusalem begin to clash over their respective communal religious rights at the Wailing Wall (known to Muslims as al-Buraq). Controversies about the site were inflamed by nationalists on both sides and resulted in full-scale riots. British troops were called in to restore order. The week-long riots leave 133 Jewsdead and 339 wounded, almost all by Arabs. Arab casualties include 116 dead and 232 wounded, most by British troops. Another result of the riots was the termination of the ancient Jewish communityHebron and the Jewish community of Beer-Sheva. September 23, 1932: Abd al-Aziz proclaims the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Having reigned over much of Arabia during the early part of the 1800s, the al-Saud familyloses part of its territory to the Turks in the latter half of the century and is driven from its capital, Riyadh, by the rival House of Rashid. In 1902, Abd al-Aziz recaptures the capital city and begins to reconquer and reunify the country, which he completes some three decades later. In 1927, Abd al-Aziz is officially proclaimed king, and five years later, the country is named the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.October 3, 1932: Iraq is recognized as an independent monarchy.As previously agreed, Britain terminates its mandate to govern Iraq. Britain maintains a strong presence in Iraq, however, so this independence is limited. Iraq joins the League of Nations and is officially recognized as a sovereign state ruled by a monarch. Iraq receives full autonomy after World War II, when British troops completetheir withdrawal.1933: Iraqi King Faisal dies and is succeeded by his son, Ghazi.King Faisal is succeeded by his 21-year-old son, Ghazi, who rules from 1933 until his accidental death in 1939. A product of Western education, Ghazi has little experience with the complexities of Iraqi tribal life. While Faisal had theprestige and ability to draw politicians around the idea of national interest, Ghazi is unable to balance competing nationalist and British pressures. As time passes, the nationalist movementbegins to view the Ghazi monarchy as little more than a British puppet. 1934: Women in Turkey earnfull voting rights.Atat¸rk grants womenfull voting rights, making Turkey the first Middle Eastern country to allow this. Women had obtained the right to vote in municipal elections in 1930.June 21, 1934: The Surname Law is adopted in Turkey; Mustafa Kemal adopts the name Atat¸rk.
Before the 20th century, the Turks, like the Arabs, didn't use family names. Mustafa Kemal -- Kemal is actually the name his schoolteachers gave him, meaning "perfect" -- officially adopts the surname "Atat¸rk," or "Father of the Turks." The honor is given by the Grand National Assembly in appreciation for his having founded and shaped the