companies that distribute and burn fossil fuels are anticipating rising energy coststhat they will pass through to customers -Trudeau gov. has target of reducing GHGs by 15% form 1990 levels by 2020-linking markets would reduce the costs of doing so
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-Ontario alone approach would require a carbon price of $157/tonne vs. $18/tonne in the linked market approach-lawyers say its unclear whether allowances and credits will be deemed as prop-erty, an uncertainty that creates a disincentive for people to trade and hold them-there is a prohibition on “beneficial ownership” a common securities practice that facilitates financing by reducing holding costs -theres no point in creating a market and then not making it operate efficiently -gov. says it has to balance efficiency with rules that ensure market integrity Unit 8Power to the People? Public Participation and The Politics of Environmental Gover-nanceUnit Notes-look at participatory and voluntary policy models that aim to incorporate citizens, communities, and other “non-state actors” into environmental policy processes and decisions -assumption that regulatory instruments will work more effectively when the incor-porate companies, communities, etc. into decisions about standards, metircs, andother aspects of environmental policy performance-argued that environmental policy processes cannot operate in isolation from the ways in which citizens, communities, etc. view and value the environment-define democratic pragmatism -sense of frustration regarding the limited impact policy has had on deforestation, fisheries depletion, biodiversity loss and anthropogenic climate changeThe Promise of Democracy-traditional relationship between citizens and sates has changed, largely as a re-sult of new information and communication technologies such as social media andGISThe Canadian Context: Cities and Provinces in Canadian Federalism-Canadian cities have become increasingly active in environmental policy pro-cesses and decisions, particularly ones concerning their ability to regulate and provide essential services in housing, transportation, sanitation, waste disposal, water treatment and emergency services -historically, Canadian cities have been highly dependent upon the regulatory, leg-islative and revenue raising powers that have been conferred to them by provin-cial and federal governments -Canadian cities have become increasingly engaged in new forms of policy innova-tions that echos the observations made by Dryzek about the role of policy experi-ments-Smart Growth policies that were introduced in BC and Ontario, including the Prov-ince of Ontario’s 2006 Places to Grow Act, the 2005 Greenbelt Act and the revisedOntario Planning Act (2007)States Within States? The Rise of Local Indigenous Politics
-critical issues concerns the ability and autonomy of aboriginal communities to manage and conserve land and renewable resources in the context of competing land claims governance -
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