Companies that distribute and burn fossil fuels are

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companies that distribute and burn fossil fuels are anticipating rising energy costs that they will pass through to customers - Trudeau gov. has target of reducing GHGs by 15% form 1990 levels by 2020 - linking markets would reduce the costs of doing so
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- Ontario alone approach would require a carbon price of $157/tonne vs. $18/tonne in the linked market approach - lawyers say its unclear whether allowances and credits will be deemed as prop- erty, an uncertainty that creates a disincentive for people to trade and hold them - there is a prohibition on “beneficial ownership” a common securities practice that facilitates financing by reducing holding costs - theres no point in creating a market and then not making it operate efficiently - gov. says it has to balance efficiency with rules that ensure market integrity Unit 8 Power to the People? Public Participation and The Politics of Environmental Gover- nance Unit Notes - look at participatory and voluntary policy models that aim to incorporate citizens, communities, and other “non-state actors” into environmental policy processes and decisions - assumption that regulatory instruments will work more effectively when the incor- porate companies, communities, etc. into decisions about standards, metircs, and other aspects of environmental policy performance - argued that environmental policy processes cannot operate in isolation from the ways in which citizens, communities, etc. view and value the environment - define democratic pragmatism - sense of frustration regarding the limited impact policy has had on deforestation, fisheries depletion, biodiversity loss and anthropogenic climate change The Promise of Democracy - traditional relationship between citizens and sates has changed, largely as a re- sult of new information and communication technologies such as social media and GIS The Canadian Context: Cities and Provinces in Canadian Federalism - Canadian cities have become increasingly active in environmental policy pro- cesses and decisions, particularly ones concerning their ability to regulate and provide essential services in housing, transportation, sanitation, waste disposal, water treatment and emergency services - historically, Canadian cities have been highly dependent upon the regulatory, leg- islative and revenue raising powers that have been conferred to them by provin- cial and federal governments - Canadian cities have become increasingly engaged in new forms of policy innova- tions that echos the observations made by Dryzek about the role of policy experi- ments - Smart Growth policies that were introduced in BC and Ontario, including the Prov- ince of Ontario’s 2006 Places to Grow Act, the 2005 Greenbelt Act and the revised Ontario Planning Act (2007) States Within States? The Rise of Local Indigenous Politics
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- critical issues concerns the ability and autonomy of aboriginal communities to manage and conserve land and renewable resources in the context of competing land claims governance -
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