Class+1+Introduction+to+Statistics+Notes

# I height measured in inches or as short medium tall c

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It is not always clear in which scale of measurement a variable may fall in. i. Height measured in inches or as short, medium, tall? c. There is no clear consensus on what Likert-type questions or scales (e.g. on a scale of 1-7) are considered. i. Ordinal or interval? The scores may be collected as a whole value, but they are generally treated as continuous. For our purposes, we will treat them as they are conventionally: interval In-Class Practice Smiles exert subliminal powers. When study subjects are shown an image of a smiling face for just four milliseconds – a flash so quick, the viewers don’t consciously register the image – they experience a mini emotional high. Compared with control groups, the smile-viewers also perceived the world in a better light: To them boring material is more interesting, neutral images look more positive, even bland drinks seem tastier. People with big grins live longer. Researchers pored over an old issue of the Baseball Register, analyzing photos of 230 players. They found that on average, the guys with bright, bigmouthed beams lived 4.9 years longer than the players with partial smiles, and 7 years longer than the players who showed no grin at all. Questions to consider: 1. What type of research design was used? Which is a better test of a hypothesis regarding the benefits of smiling? Why? 2. For each study Identify the variables (IV, DV, QV) Identify scales of measurement (N,O,I,R) for each variable Dr. Viji Sathy Page 2

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Is each variable discrete or continuous? Dr. Viji Sathy Page 3
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• Spring '08
• Chow
• iii. Experimental Method, Dr. Viji Sathy, iii. Quasi-independent variable, i. Correlational/observational method, ii. Quasi-experimental method

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