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biologyfinalexamreview

Dozens of enzymes are needed to facilitate dozens of

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Dozens of enzymes are needed to facilitate dozens of reactions necessary at each step along the way - During the light-dependent reaction: o In the thylakoids o Sunlight energy is converted into chemical energy stored in the energy- carrier molecules ATP and NADPH o O 2 is given off as waste o H 2 O + sunlight à ATP, NADPH, & O 2 o Photorespiration - Photorespiration = the build-up of O 2 to toxic levels: eventually death o Plants are faced with a choice: 1. open stomata & dehydrate (death) or 2. keep stomata closed & increase photorespiration (death) Chapter 8: *Be familiar with figure 8-2 Glycolysis: properties, “equation” - Splits glucose into 2 pyruvates and 2 ATPs - Glucose à 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP - Occurs in cytoplasm of cell - Anaerobic: requires no oxygen (O 2 ) Cellular respiration: properties, “equation” - 2 pyruvates (created by glycolysis) move into the mitochondria - “powerhouse of cell” because it creates most of the energy - Cellular respiration is aerobic (requires O 2 ) - Why we must breathe! o Cellular respiration involves 3 steps
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Krebs cycle Electron transport chain Chemiosmosis (does deal with gradients but unlike its name suggests, does not deal with water) - pyruvate + O 2 à 34 or 36 ATP + CO 2 + H 2 O + heat o 34 or 36 ATP are created depending on the efficiency of the cell o Exergonic because it breaks down glucose, freeing its energy exergonic = heat byproduct Fermentation: properties, 2 kinds - Fermentation o Produces no ATP (no energy) o Pyruvate stays in the cytoplasm and converts to either alcohol + CO 2 or to lactate (lactic acid) o A small amount of fermentation is necessary to regenerate certain molecules needed for cellular respiration o Animal cells create lactic acid during fermentation o Muscles that are working hard use up O 2 very quickly à low O 2 =fermentation = build-up of lactic acid = muscle soreness and burning o Lactic acid fermentation is also used to convert milk into sour cream, yogurt, and cheese o Some non-animal cells (e.g. yeast, a fungus) produce alcohol + CO 2 during fermentation o Alcohol fermentation is used to convert sugars into alcohol + CO 2 in bread (both are baked off), wine, and beer Chapter 9: 3 types of cells - Most multicellular, eukaryotic organisms have 3 categories of cells o Stem cells : continue to divide & can eventually differentiate into a variety of cell types o Other cells capable of dividing : e.g. dividing liver cells, which can only become more liver cells o Permanently differentiated cells : e.g. most heart & brain cells cannot divide Mitosis vs. meiosis * should be able to tell mitosis from meiosis from examples or characteristics - Cell division = process by which a parent cell gives rise to 2 daughter cells 2 kinds of cell division: Mitosis = 1 cell duplicates everything, then divides to make 2 identical daughter cells Meiosis = 1 cell divides to make 2 non-identical daughter cells with half the DNA (sperm or egg cells)
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Cancer: benign, malignant, metastasis - Cancer = uncontrolled cell division due to DNA mutations that cause the cell cycle
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