4. John Adams denounced the Pennsylvania unicameral legislature as “so democratical that it must produce confusion and every evil work.” J ohn Adams’s theory from Thoughts on Government (1776), which called for three branches of government, each representing one function: executive, legislative, and judicial. This system of dispersed authority was devised to maintain a balance of power and ensure the legitimacy of governmental procedures. Also may be known as separation of powers 2. Tempering Democracy a. In his Thoughts on Government (1776), Adams devised a system of government that dispersed authority by assigning lawmaking, administering, and judging to separate branches; bicameral (two-house) legislature in which the upper house, filled with property-owning men, would check the power of the popular majorities in the lower house; and proposed an elected governor with the power to veto laws and an appointed— not elected—judiciary to review them. b. Conservative Patriots endorsed Adams’s system. The bicameral legislature- dominant branch of government, and state constitutions apportioned seats on the basis of population, but most states retained property qualifications for voting and office holding. c. Only in Vermont and Pennsylvania were radical Patriots able to take power and create truly democratic institutions; yet in all the new states, representative legislatures had more power and the day-to-day politics became much more responsive to the demands of average citizens. B. Women Seek a Public Voice 1. Upper-class women entered into the debate but remained second-class citizens, unable to participate directly in politics. 2. Although not demanding equality to men, women sought legal equality
Why was Shay’s Rebellion significant? Why was there a rise of Nationalism? Virginia Plan such as owning property and signing contracts. 3. Most politicians ignored women’s requests, as did most men who insisted on traditional gender roles that empowered themselves. 4. The republican quest for educated citizenry provided the avenue for the most important advances made by American women. C. The War’s Losers: Loyalists, Native Americans, and Slaves 1. Loyalist lands were either sold or given to Patriot tenants, in general the revolutionary upheaval did not alter the structure of rural communities. 2. Social turmoil was greatest in the cities, Patriot merchants replaced Loyalists at the top of the economic ladder. 3. The war replaced a tradition-oriented economic elite with a group of entrepreneurial-minded republican merchants who promoted new trading ventures and domestic manufacturing. 4. The Revolution inspired yeomen and upstart entrepreneurs to demand property rights and access to land in the West from their new republican state governments. 5. Native Americans challenged movement into the Ohio River Valley. 6. Southern planters articulated Revolutionary principles to defend their right to human property. 7. White Americans denied Native Americans and slaves the rights and liberties for which they had fought in the Revolution.
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