A number of mnemonic devices are based on the principle of
, which occurs
when useful information is stored in more than one form—such as a verbal description
and a visual image, or a description and a sound—and it regularly produces stronger
memories than the use of one form alone.
It leads to the information receiving deeper processing; this is because the
additional sensory representations create a larger number of memory
associations. This subsequently leads to a greater number of potential retrieval
cues that can be accessed later.
The simplest explanation for the dual-coding advantage is that twice as much
information is stored.
While these mnemonic devices can help with simple memorization, they may not
necessarily improve your understanding of the material. Method of improving
, which are techniques involving spacing
out studying rather than cramming, or studying material in varying orders.
No matter how an individual studies, they should always take advantage of the
, the finding that taking practice tests can improve exam performance, even
without additional studying.
7.3 CONSTRUCTING AND RECONSTRUCTING MEMORIES
How Memories Are Organized and Constructed
As it turns out, much of the way we store memories depends on our tendency to
remember the gist of things.
The Schema: An Active Organization Process
The gist of a story gives us “the big picture”, or a general structure for the memory;
details can be added around that structure.
This gist is often inﬂuenced by
organized clusters of memories that constitute one’s knowledge about events, objects
Whenever we encounter familiar events or objects, these schemas become
active, and they affect what we expect, what we pay attention to, and what we
remember (eg. when reminded about doing laundry, your personal collection of
concepts and memories regarding laundry activates and would be your