of biological function o Approach or withdraw from

Of biological function o approach or withdraw from

This preview shows page 16 - 19 out of 24 pages.

Regularity/predictability of biological function o Approach or withdraw from stimuli o Adaptability to change in routine or to new things Easy : o 40% o Positive mood, regular routines, easily adapts to new experiences Difficult: o 10% o Reacts negatively, cries frequently, irregular routine, slow to accept new experiences Slow-to-warm-up : o 15% o Inactive, slow to adapt to new experiences but do eventually warm up, low intensity of mood Mead & Cooley, looking glass self. Looking-glass self “self” based on how others respond to us 16
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We are reflected in other’s responses Sense of self: the rouge test. Rouge test: recognition of self What is selective optimization with compensation? Environment < ------ > Persons o Reciprocal influences between people and their situations… influenced by perceptions of control o Assessed by observations of people’s behaviors in particular situations and questionnaires about feeling of control Locus of control, optimism. Locus of control : o Internal - within you Achieve more in school Act independently Delay gratification Cope with stresses o External - outside forces or chance Optimism : o The effect of “positivism” o With a dash of realism o Success requires: Enough optimism to provide hope Enough pessimism to prevent complacency What is ‘Theory of Mind”? Understanding our minds and the minds of others The understanding that… o People have metal states such as desires, beliefs and intentions o These metal states guide their behavior Develops most dramatically during the birth to elementary school period of development Autistic children appear unable to develop a theory of mind Describe some steps in the development of Theory of Mind. Desire psychology: o ~age 2 o Talk about what they want and explain own and other’s behavior in terms of wants The crackers vs broccoli experiment o Refer to metal states in their speech I ‘wanted’ to do this I ‘thought’ it was a taxi 17
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Belief-desire psychology: o ~age 3-4 o People behave as they do because they desire certain things and believe their actions will get them what they want Understand that not all beliefs are accurate reflections of reality Is there a difference between belief and reality What is the ‘false belief task’? Important indicator of the development of belief-desire psychology o Shows child understands that people can hold incorrect beliefs and that these beliefs, even though incorrect, can influence their behavior o About 85% of 4 year olds passed false belief task Know evidences of personality STABILITY Define trait An identifiable pattern of behavior that is characteristic for that person A set of conscious motives proclaimed by that person “temperament” is infancy/childhood correspond well to these traits as adults Assessed by: personality inventories, peer ratings, factor analysis Know ‘the Big 5’ – OCEAN O penness o Imaginative vs practical o Preference from variety vs preference for routine o Independent vs conforming o From curiosity and interest to a preference from sameness C
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