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Regularity/predictability of biological functionoApproach or withdraw from stimulioAdaptability to change in routine or to new thingsEasy:o40%oPositive mood, regular routines, easily adapts to new experiencesDifficult:o10%oReacts negatively, cries frequently, irregular routine, slow to accept new experiencesSlow-to-warm-up:o15%oInactive, slow to adapt to new experiences but do eventually warm up, lowintensity of moodMead & Cooley, looking glass self.Looking-glass self“self” based on how others respond to us16
We are reflected in other’s responsesSense of self:the rouge test. Rouge test: recognition of selfWhat is selective optimization with compensation?Environment < ------ > PersonsoReciprocal influences between people and their situations… influenced byperceptions of controloAssessed by observations of people’s behaviors in particular situations andquestionnaires about feeling of controlLocus of control, optimism.Locus of control:oInternal- within youAchieve more in schoolAct independentlyDelay gratificationCope with stressesoExternal- outside forces or chanceOptimism:oThe effect of “positivism”oWith a dash of realismoSuccess requires:Enough optimism to provide hopeEnough pessimism to prevent complacencyWhat is ‘Theory of Mind”?Understanding our minds and the minds of othersThe understanding that…oPeople have metal states such as desires, beliefs and intentionsoThese metal states guide their behaviorDevelops most dramatically during the birth to elementary school period of developmentAutistic children appear unable to develop a theory of mindDescribe some steps in the development of Theory of Mind.Desire psychology:o~age 2oTalk about what they want and explain own and other’s behavior in terms of wantsThe crackers vs broccoli experimentoRefer to metal states in their speechI ‘wanted’ to do thisI ‘thought’ it was a taxi17
Belief-desire psychology:o~age 3-4oPeople behave as they do because they desirecertain things and believetheir actions will get them what they wantUnderstand that not all beliefs are accurate reflections of realityIs there a difference between belief and realityWhat is the ‘false belief task’?Important indicator of the development of belief-desire psychologyoShows child understands that people can hold incorrect beliefs and that these beliefs, even though incorrect, can influence their behavioroAbout 85% of 4 year olds passed false belief taskKnow evidences of personality STABILITY– Define traitAn identifiable pattern of behavior that is characteristic for that personA set of conscious motives proclaimed by that person“temperament” is infancy/childhood correspond well to these traits as adultsAssessed by: personality inventories, peer ratings, factor analysisKnow ‘the Big 5’ – OCEANOpennessoImaginative vs practicaloPreference from variety vs preference for routineoIndependent vs conformingoFrom curiosity and interest to a preference from samenessC