As a mmwave network would require densely populated

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as a mmWave network would require densely populated base stations throughout a geographic area to ensure uninterrupted connectivity. This challenge is further aggravated by the fact that mmWaves can be easily blocked by obstacles like walls, foliage, and the human body itself. MmWave spectrum can achieve extended range in specific circumstances, such as in large buildings with flat reflective windows above the tree line, but few environments in the United States are conducive to this type of propagation. Various studies have begun to test the efficacy of mmWave and sub-6 infrastructure builds in the United States. MoffettNathanson LLC recently conducted an analysis of Verizon’s 5G mmWave efforts in Sacramento and discovered that after roughly six months in the market, Verizon’s ~150 fixed wireless broadband (FWBB) base stations can only offer service to around 6% of residential addresses in the tested areas. 3 Verizon has been targeting particularly dense 3 Craig Moffet, Ray McDonough and Jessica Moffet, “Fixed Wireless Broadband: A Peek Behind the Curtain of Verizon’s 5G Rollout,” p. 7, MoffetNathanson, March 20, 2019, .
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DIB 5G Study Preliminary Release, 3 April 2019 9 parts of Sacramento as optimal testing environments and is focused on developing a fixed network, which carries fewer challenges for mmWave deployment than a mobile network. However, even in these optimized circumstances it is clear that scaling this solution to provide more coverage would be a time- and cost-intensive endeavor requiring a massive infrastructure build-out. Google also performed a preliminary study for the Defense Innovation Board to ascertain the approximate capital expenditure (capex) and base station counts needed for mmWave deployments, using 425 MHz of spectrum at 28 GHz (a mmWave configuration standard for current U.S. 5G trials), compared to 250 MHz of spectrum in the 3.4 GHz band (a sub-6 configuration, standard for Chinese 5G trials and deployment). This equipment was deployed on 72,735 existing macrocell towers and rooftops (the easiest choice for deployment) and was found to provide mmWave coverage to only 11.6% of the U.S. population at cell edge speeds of 100 Mbps, with 3.9% coverage at 1 gigabit. For sub-6, the same tower sites covered 57.4% of the population at 100 Mbps, and 21.2% of the population at 1 Gbps. The study used high- resolution geospatial data that included shadowing from foliage structures, but did not take into account shadowing from the human body or a vehicle, which realistically would exist in a deployed environment and even further disrupt connectivity for mmWave networks. Most operators are looking at deploying mmWave 5G sites on utility poles, given the poles’ ease of accessibility and abundance. Using a database of utility poles in the United States, the study indicated that it would require approximately 13 million pole-mounted 28-GHz base stations and $400B dollars in capex to deliver 100 Mbps edge rate at 28 GHz to 72% of the U.S. population, and up to 1 Gbps to approximately 55% of the U.S. population. Figures 1 and 2 below show the
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