Tight junctions iii desmosomes iv gap junctions 5

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Biology
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Chapter 34 / Exercise 8
Biology
Martin/Solomon
Expert Verified
ii.Tight junctionsiii.Desmosomesiv.Gap junctions5.Cell membrane – fluid mosaic model6.Transport across the cell membranea.Selectively permeableb.Concentration gradientc.Passive transporti.Diffusionii.Osmosis – solute, solvent1.Hypotonic2.Hypertonic3.isotonicd.facilitated transporte.active transporti.electrochemical gradientii.ATPiii.Endocytosisiv.Phagocytosisv.pinocytosisvi.ExocytosisUnit 4 – How cells get energy1.Metabolism2.Catabolic, anabolic3.Thermodynamicsa.Energy is constant in the universe. Energy can be transformed into another formb.Entropy increases4.Potential & kinetic energy5.Exergonic & endergonic reactions6.Enzymes – lower the activation energy of a reactiona.Substratesb.Active sitec.Enzyme-substrate complexd.Cofactors, coenzymese.Affected by pH, temperature, salt concentration, substrate concentrationf.Competitive inhibitiong.Noncompetitive inhibitionh.Allosteric inhibitioni.Feedback inhibition7.ATP8.Glycolysis – anaerobica.Takes place in cytoplasm of cell
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Biology
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Chapter 34 / Exercise 8
Biology
Martin/Solomon
Expert Verified
b.Produces ATP, NADH, pyruvate9.Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)a.Acetyl CoAb.Inside matrix of mitochondrionc.NADH, FADH2, some ATP10. Oxidative phosphorylation (Electron Transport Chain)a.Oxygen used to draw energy out of NADH, FADH2b.Electron carriers activate H+pumpsc.H+diffuse through ATP synthase – makes lots of ATP! (chemiosmosis)11. Fermentationa.Lactic acidb.EthanolUnit 5 - PhotosynthesisHeterotrophs and AutotrophsEquation for photosynthesis: 6CO2+ 6H2O ------> C6H12O6+ 6O21.Where does photosynthesis take place in the plant?a.Mesophyll tissue layerb.Chloroplastc.Thylakoid membraned.Chlorophyll molecules (pigment molecules)2.There are two parts to photosynthesisa.Light-dependent reactions: can only occur when light is presenti.What is light?ii.Wavelength of lightiii.Trough & crestiv.Electromagnetic spectrumv.Pigment molecules – chlorophylls a& bPhotosystem II (PSII)-Light is absorbed by chlorophyll, passed on to reaction center-Water is split, energy released, replenishes energy lost by chlorophylls (oxygen released)-Electrons from chlorophylls are passed on to proteins in ETC-Proteins are H+pumps-H+pumps move H+from stroma to thylakoid space-H+diffuse back to stroma through ATP synthase, which makes ATPPhotosystem I (PSI)-Chlorophylls absorb sunlight energy, pass electrons on to enzyme, which makes NADPH-Energy lost by chlorophylls is replenished by electrons from PSII
b.Light-independent reactions: do not require light-Also known as the Calvin Cycle (named after the man who described it)-Carbon dioxide enters the stroma of the chloroplast-RuBisCO enzyme attaches (fixes) carbon dioxide to a molecule-ATP from PSII is used to drive enzymes-NADPH is used to reduce (transfer electrons) to the sugar-Sugar is produced (G3P is used to make glucose)3.Photosynthesis in prokaryotes (bacteria)Photosynthetic bacteria have infoldings of their membrane where chlorophyll occurs – they do not have chloroplasts4.Plants perform photosynthesis to make sugars. They also use cellular respiration to break sugars down for energy.

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