The third gem the sangha refers to the monastic order

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Thethird gem, the Sangha, refers to the monastic order founded by the Buddha. The sanghapreserves the teachings of the Buddha for future generations. They are ordained men (and women tosome) who give their whole lives to attain enlightenment as well as helping others liberate themselvesfrom the sufferings of this world.The Five PreceptsThese 5 rules, also called the 5 precepts, are common to most branches of Buddhism:1. “I undertake the precept to abstain from killing breathing beings.”2. “To abstain from taking what is not mine.”3. “I undertake the precept to abstain from misconduct concerning sense-pleasures.”4. “To abstain from false speech.”5. “I undertake the training precept to abstain from alcoholic drink or drugs that are anopportunity for heedlessness.”The Five Precepts, together with the Three Gems, comprises the fundamental belief ofBuddhism.The Four Noble TruthsDukkha––Life is suffering.Samudaya––There is suffering because there is desire.Nirodha––In order to get rid of suffering, one has to get rid of desire.Magga––There is a path that leads from suffering (The Eightfold Path).The Six PerfectionEach perfection develops a particular aspect of a Buddhist’s character or understanding. Thetable below sets out what the Six Perfections mean in practice.Generosity (Dana paramita)Willingness to give to others what they need, whether that be time,possessions or skills. Willingness to give without regret and with joy, and togive without expectation of reward.Morality (Sila paramita)Following the Dhamma (or Dharma) in all aspects, but not without thinking.Working the Dhamma into one’s daily life with intelligence andunderstanding.Patience (Ksanti paramita)Also translated as ‘tolerance’ or ‘endurance’. Being patient with others,SNI LEARNING MODULEPage 29
enduring hardship and accepting the truth of life’s unsatisfactoriness (ordukkha).Energy (Virya paramita)Dedication to attaining Buddhahood.Meditation (Dhyana paramita)Meditation is the foundation of wisdom. Inner focus and calm are essentialfor the deep understanding required for Buddhahood.Wisdom (Prajna paramita)Wisdom consists of understanding that all of existence is emptiness(sunyata). This idea is the foundation of all of the paramitas. Wisdom, whichmeans awareness of sunyata, is achieved through the previous fiveparamitas.The Eightfold PathWe can overcome our “Ego”, feel greater harmony with the world around us and eliminate thepain we experience through the Noble Eightfold Path. In this path, the Wheel (symbol of Dharma) isrepresented with eight rays, depicting the following eight principles:Right ViewSamma – ditthiAwareness of the law of karma and theFour Noble TruthsRight ThoughtSamma – sankappaAvoiding thoughts of anger, greed, and illicit desiresRight SpeechSamma – vacaAvoiding lies, unkind speech, and frivolous talkRight ActionSamma – kammantoAvoiding evil acts, those against theFive PreceptsRight LivelihoodSamma – ajivoAvoiding lifestyles and occupations that harm oneself andother beings

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Term
Spring
Professor
BHATTACHARYYA
Tags
Christianity, Islam, Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah

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