Ethernet IIThe original Ethernet frame type developed by Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel, and Xerox, beforethe IEEE began to standardize Ethernet. Ethernet II is distinguished from other Ethernet frame types in that it contains a 2-byte type field to identify the upper-layer protocol contained in the frame. It supports TCP/IP and other higher-layer protocols.Fast EthernetA type of Ethernet network that is capable of 100-Mbps throughput. 100Base-T and 100Base-FX are both examples of Fast Ethernet.fault toleranceThe capability for a component or system to continue functioning despite damage or malfunction.Gigabit EthernetA type of Ethernet network that is capable of 1000-Mbps, or 1-Gbps, throughput.hybrid topologyA physical topology that combines characteristics of more than one simple physical topology.jammingA part of CSMA/CD in which, upon detecting a collision, a station issues a special 32-bit sequence to indicate to all nodes on an Ethernet segment that its previously transmitted frame has suffered a collision and should be considered faulty.logical topologyA characteristic of network transmission that reflects the way in which data are transmitted between nodes. A network’s logical topology may differ from itsphysical topology. The most common logical topologies are bus and ring.MPLS (multiprotocol label switching)A type of switching that enables any one of several Layer 2 protocols to carry multiple types of Layer 3 protocols. One of its benefits is the ability to use packet-switched technologies overtraditionally circuit-switched networks. MPLS can also create end-to-end paths that act like circuit-switched connections.modal bandwidthA measure of the highest frequency of signal a multimode fiber-optic cable can support over a specific distance. Modal bandwidth is measured in MHz-km.multiprotocol label switchingSeeMPLS.packet switchingA type of switching in which data are broken into packets before being transported. In packet switching, packets can travel any path on the network to their destination because each packet contains a destination address and sequencing information.paddingThe bytes added to the data (or information) portion of an Ethernet frame to ensure this field is at least 46 bytes in size. Padding has no effect on the data carried by the frame.parallel backboneA type of backbone that consists of more than one connection from the central router or switchto each network segment.passive topologyA network topology in which each node passively listens for, then accepts, data directed to it. A bus topology is considered a passive topology.PD (powered device)On a network using Power over Ethernet, a node that receives power from power sourcing equipment.
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