And foreshadowing of the civil war 24 charles sumner

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and foreshadowing of the civil war. 24. Charles Sumner - Abolitionist senator from Massachusetts who in 1856 was beaten by South Carolina representative Preston Brooks on the floor of congress with a cane. The event revealed that event in the democratic institution of congress, compromise was no longer possible . 25. Freeport Doctrine - Stephan Douglas’s response to Lincoln’s question of “Would the people of a territory be defying the Supreme Court’s ruling on Dred Scott, should they vote down slavery?” He argued that no matter how the Supreme Court ruled, slavery would stay down if the people voted it to do so and laws to protect slavery would have to be voted on by the territorial legislatures. It is important as this argument helped him to win the senatorial election but his elusiveness lost him the presidency in 1860. 26. Dred Scott - Subject of one of the Supreme Court’s worst rulings. Scott was a slave who Chief Justice Taney said was not made free when he was moved to a free state. This ruling was important as it allowed for slavery in all states and thereby nullified state balance guaranteed under the Kansas-Nebraska Act. 27. Lincoln-Douglas Debates - a series of seven debates for the open Illinois senate seat in 1858. They were heated and are important as one of the most famous debates in history arguing in essence whether slavery and popular sovereignty can co-existence . 28. Harpers Ferry - In October 1859, John Brown failed to seize the federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. He was captured and before being executed, his trial divided the nation, as many thought him either a hero or killer. 2
29. Horace Greeley - Influential New York Tribune editor who clashed with Lincoln and his war plans. He was a controversial figure who worked tirelessly for a peaceful reconstruction (even paying the bail for Jefferson Davis) and was even nominated as the presidential candidate for the Liberal Republicans in 1873. 3

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