Allocation of the Communications Resource 657 1111 Frequency Division

Allocation of the communications resource 657 1111

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Allocation of the Communications Resource, 657 11.1.1 Frequency-Division Multiplexing/Multiple Access, 660 11.1.2 Time-Division Multiplexing/Multiple Access, 665 11.1.3 Communications Resource Channelization, 668 11.1.4 Performance Comparison ofFDMA and TDMA, 668 11.1.5 Code-Division Multiple Access, 672 11.1.6 Space-Division and Polarization-Division Multiple Access, 674 11.2 Multiple Access Communications System and Architecture, 676 11.2.1 Multiple Access Information Flow, 677 11.2.2 Demand Assignment Multiple Access, 678 11.3 Access Algorithms, 678 11.3.1 ALOHA, 678 11.3.2 Slotted ALOHA, 682 11.3.3 Reservation-ALOHA, 683 11.3.4 Performance Comparison ofS-ALOHA and R-ALOHA, 684 11.3.5 Polling Techniques, 686 11.4 Multiple Access Techniques Employed with INTELSAT, 689 11.4.1 Preassigned FDM/FM/FDMA or MCPC Operation, 690 11.4.2 MCPC Modes of Accessing an INTELSA T Satellite, 690 11.4.3 SPADE Operation, 693 11.4.4 TDMA in INTELSAT, 698 11.4.5 Satellite-Switched TDMA in INTELSAT, 704 Contents xiii
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11.5 Multiple Access Techniques for Local Area Networks, 708 11.5.1 Carrier-Sense Multiple Access Networks, 708 11.5.2 Token-Ring Networks, 710 11.5.3 Performance Comparison of CSMA/CD and Token-Ring Networks, 711 11.6 Conclusion, 713 12 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES 718 12.1 Spread-Spectrum Overview, 719 12.1.1 The Beneficial Attributes of Spread-Spectrum Systems, 720 12.1.2 A Catalog of Spreading Techniques, 724 12.1.3 Model for Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Interference Rejection, 726 12.1.4 Historical Background, 727 12.2 Pseudonoise Sequences, 728 72.2 .1 Randomness Properties, 729 12.2.2 Shift Register Sequences, 729 12.2.3 PN Autocorrelation Function, 730 12.3 Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Systems, 732 12.3.1 Example of Direct Sequencing, 734 12.3.2 Processing Gain and Performance, 735 12.4 Frequency Hopping Systems, 738 12.4.1 Frequency Hopping Example, 740 12.4.2 Robustness, 741 12.4.3 Frequency Hopping with Diversity, 741 12.4.4 Fast Hopping versus Slow Hopping, 742 12.4.5 FFH/MFSK Demodulator, 744 12.4.6 Processing Gain, 745 12.5 Synchronization, 745 12.5.1 Acquisition, 746 12.5.2 Tracking, 751 12.6 Jamming Considerations, 754 12.6.1 The Jamming Game, 754 12.6.2 Broadband Noise Jamming, 759 12.6.3 ^Partial-Band Noise Jamming, 760 12.6.4 . Multiple-Tone Jamming, 763 12.6.5 Pulse Jamming, 763 12.6.6 Repeat-Back Jamming, 765 12.6.7 BLADES System, 768 12.7 Commercial Applications, 769 12.7.1 Code-Division Multiple Access, 769 12.7.2 Multipath Channels, 771 12.7.3 The FCC Part 15 Rules for Spread-Spectrum Systems, 772 12.7.4 Direct Sequence versus Frequency Hopping, 773 12.8 Cellular Systems, 775 12.8.1 Direct Sequence CDMA, 776 xiv Contents
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12.8.2 Analog FM versus TDMA versus CDMA, 779 12.8.3 Interference-Limited versus Dimension-Limited Systems, 781 12.8.4 IS-95 CDMA Digital Cellular System, 782 12.9 Conclusion, 795 13 SOURCE CODING 803 13.1 Sources, 804 13.1.1 Discrete Sources, 804 13.1.2 Waveform Sources, 809 13.2 Amplitude Quantizing, 811 13.2.1 Quantizing Noise, 813 13.2.2 Uniform Quantizing, 816 13.2.3 Saturation, 820 13.2.4 Dithering, 823 13.2.5 Nonuniform Quantizing, 826 13.3 Differential Pulse-Code Modulation, 835 13.3.1 One-Tap Prediction, 838 13.3.2 N-Tap Prediction, 839 13.3.3 Delta Modulation, 841 13.3.4 Sigma-Delta Modulation, 842 13.3.5 Sigma-Delta A-to-D Converter (ADC), 847 13.3.6 Sigma-Delta D-to-A Converter (DAC), 848 13.4 Adaptive Prediction, 850 13.4.1 Forward Prediction, 851 13.4.2 Synthesis/Analysis Coding, 852 13.5 Block Coding, 853 13.5.1 Vector Quantizing, 854 13.6 Transform Coding, 856 13.6.1 Quantization for Transform Coding, 857 13.6.2 Subband Coding, 857 13.7
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