Julius caesar 100 44 bc triumvirate ruling group of 3

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Julius Caesar: (100-44 BC) Triumvirate (ruling group of 3) Julius Caesar (politician), Pompey (general), and Crassus (banker) conspired to take over Rome. 59 BC- Caesar gained command of the legions in Gaul. Next year starts to conquer France and Britain. *acted decisively, moved troops rapidly, and had excellent rapport with is men. 53 BC Crassus perished with his army against the Parthians. Pompey (jealous of Caesar) sided with the Senate and they ordered Caesar to relinquish his command. Caesar marched on Rome instead (49 BC), acknowledged victor and became a dictator legally for 10 yrs. *fough the exploitation of provinces and extended citizenship, public works program (employment and beautification of the city), relocated the poor to provinces and gave them land. 44BC Caesar’s dictatorship is extended to a lifetime position and the ruling class, has him assassinated. The Republics’ Last Years Civil War erupted after Caesar’s assignation (Mark Antony, Lepidous, and Octavian <caesar’s adopted son> vs. Brutus and Cassius <conspired against Caesar>) Antony and Octavian crushed them and then fought one another for Rome. 31 BC naval battle of Actium in Western Greece (Octavian crushes Antony and Cleopatra). Augustus and the Foundation of the Roman empire Octavian became first emperor and ruled in conjuction with Senate. <let the Senate believe they still had some power> Princeps (first citizen) was his title. Name changed to Augustus Reformed and improvements *reformed army to guard against reemergence of generals that wrecked the republic. < loyalty by ensuring veterans on discharge got bonances and land Rome: aqueducts and water mains which brought water to most Roman homes. Fire brigrade, police force Free grain to the impoverished proletarian Financed gladiator games out of own funds *Roads repaired, public works, corrected tax abuse, extoration Successors of Augustus Julio-Claudian dynasty (14-68 AD) Nero commited suicde in 68 AD Vespasain )69-79 AD) beginning of the Flavian dynasty. Constructed the Colosseum in Rome *Judea, Roman rule clashed with religious-national sentiments
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Caligula (37-41 AD) ordered a golden statute of himself put in Jeruslam’s temple, met with resistance. 66AD fullscale war of liberation by Jews against Romans. 70AD Jerusalem captured and temple destroyed. Titus (79-81 AD) Domitian (81-96AD) sons of Vaspasain, eruption of Mount Vesuvius (Pompey) and a revolt led by a commander in upper Germany led to the execution of many leading Romans which led to Domitian’s assassination Nerva (96-98 AD) elected by Senate, adopted his son and designated as a heir a man with a proven ability Trajan (98-117 AD) eased burden of taxation in the provinces, provided for poor children, public works <conquered Dacia(Romania and Hungary> got lots of gold and silver Hadrian (117-138 AD) strengthened border defenses in Britain and fought a 2 nd revolut in Judea (132-135 AD), forced Jews out of Jerusalem, only allowed to enter once a year and renamed Syria Palestina.
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