MO can also be categorized into one of two defining effects: Establishing Operation (EO) - increases the current effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event as reinforcement Abolishing Operation (AO) - decrease the current effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event as reinforcement Positive reinforcement o Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus and as a result, occurs more often in the future Negative reinforcement o When the frequency of a behavior increases because past responses have resulted in the withdrawal or termination of a stimulus o Characterized by escape or avoidance contingencies o Ex: A person who jumps out of the shower because the water is too hot escapes the overly hot water o Refers to the termination of an aversive stimulus Difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement o The term reinforcement always means an increase in response rate and positive and negative define the type of stimulus change in the operation; adding or withdrawing a stimulus Conditional probability analysis/formula for conditional probability analysis o Investigates temporal relationships between antecedents, consequences, and behaviors. o The purpose is to determine which environmental events are associated with problem behaviors o Formula: # of target behaviors followed by specific environmental consequence/total number of target behaviors occurring during
observation period Discriminative stimulus o A stimulus in the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occurred and not been reinforced; this history of differential reinforcement is the reason sD increases the momentary frequency of the behavior Maintaining contingencies o Behavior contracts o A mutually agreed upon document between parties that specifies a contingent relationship between the completion of specified behaviors and access to specified reinforcers Operational definition for behavior pg. 32 o an important part of prioritizing a target for intervention. A precise description of the behavior of concern. Meets 3 important criteria: 1. Be objective. Should include only observable and measurable characteristics of behavior.
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- Fall '14
- Psychology, CBC