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The People’s Party (Populists): Founded in 1892, it advocated a variety of reform issues, including free coinage of silver, income tax, postal savings, regulation of railroads, and direct election of U.S. senators.Pullman Strike: Strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company in the company town of Pullman, Illinois, on May 11, 1894, by the American Railway Union under Eugene V. Debs; the strike was crushed by court injunctions and federal troops two months later.Populism and Labor: Populism was the last great political expression of the 19thcentury vision of America as a commonwealth of small producers whose freedom rested on the ownership of productive property and respect for the dignity of labor.Presidential Election of 1896: Called the first modern presidential campaign because of the amount of money spent by the Republicans and the efficiency of their national organization.Elimination of Black Voting: Southern states made laws and enacted constitutional provisions between 1890 and 1906 that were meant to eliminate black voting. Some legislatures made laws that seemed color-blind on paper but were meant to end black voting. For example poll tax, literacy tests, grandfatherclause, and demonstrating to election officials that they understood the state constitution. Civil Rights Cases:Plessy v. Ferguson: U.S. Supreme Court decision supporting the legality of Jim Crow laws that permitted or required “separate but equal” facilities for blacks and whites.New Immigration:Nativism: Anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic feeling especially prominent in the 1830s through the 1850s; the largest group was New York’s Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, which expanded into the American (Know-Nothing) Party in 1854.Chinese Exclusion: Halted Chinese immigration to the United States in 1882.Fong Yue Ting decision: In 1893, the court authorized that the government was allowed to expel Chinesealiens without using the process of law. In 1904, the court used Fong Yue Ting to uphold a law that barred anarchists from entering the U.S. This showed how restrictions on the rights of one group could infringe on the rights of another.Booker T. Washington: A former slave who encouraged blacks to keep to themselves and focus on the daily tasks of survival, rather than leading a grand uprising. He believed that building a strong economicbase was more critical at that time than planning on an uprising or fighting for equal rights. He stated that blacks needed to accept segregation in the short term as they focused on economic gain to achieve political equality in the future. He was an important role model for later leaders of the civil rights movement. American Federation of Labor (AFL): Founded in 1881 as a federation of trade unions composed mostlyof skilled, white, native-born workers; its long-term president was Samuel Gompers.Women’s Christian Temperance Union: Largest female reform society of the late nineteenth century; it moved from opposing sale of liquor to demanding the right to vote for women.