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(4) Further processing: Due to the preservation techniques used, raw pelt is dry and hard. After auctioning the raw fur is converted into leather and renders it useful for garments. To get the desired look the leather may then be dyed with bleaching agents. It is similar to leather production except that the animal hairs are conserved (BASF 2010 ). 6.1.2 Apparel Manufacture In Europe, important fur apparel manufacturing locations are Kastoria and Siatista and the surrounding area, in Greece (Bijlevel et al. 2011 ). The steps of apparel manufacture are as follows (Connecticut Furs Inc. 2016 ): 48 M. Ramchandani and I. Coste-Maniere
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selection of the number of furs needed for the desired design; slicing the skin into strips and sewing these together to make the designed pattern; soaking in water, stretching and drying, to match the form and design of the pattern; mounting additional parts, like closures. 6.1.3 Faux Fur Production Faux fur fi bre is produced from petro chemicals as part of large integrated chemical manufacturing facilities. Europe, Japan and North America account for much of the annual global production (DSS Management Consultants Inc. 2012 ). Considerable processing is required to convert acrylic fi bre into faux fur fabric. Further, the actual production of faux fur fabric often occurs quite distant from where the fi bre is produced, example China is a major faux fur fabric producer. 7 Environmental Impact of Natural Versus Faux Fur Coat Production In this section we discuss various environmental impacts of natural and faux fur and describe the literature associated with the analysis of the environmental impacts. 7.1 Life Cycle Assessment According to US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA 2016 ), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a technique to analyse the environmental impacts of a pro- duct's life from material creation to disposal or recycling. The systematic approach of LCA is utilised by various industries and academicians (Willaims 2009 ). LCA aids analysts (Williams 2009 ) in the following purposes: calculate a product s environmental impact, identify negative and positive environmental impact of processing or production, fi nd opportunities for improvement, compare and analyse several processes depending on their environmental impacts, quantitatively justify a change in process or product. There are four main phases of LCA which are de fi ning goals and scope, inventory analysis, impact assessment and interpretation (ISO 14040 2006 and ISO 14044 2006 ). A large number of LCA literature describe various indicators (Gyetvai 2012 ); these are To Fur or not to Fur: Sustainable Production and Consumption 49
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(1) Selected life cycle impact (LCI) indicators This is useful to track quantity fl ows like the use of secondary energy throughout product's life cycle. These are not impact indicators directly but are useful for interpretation phase of a LCA study.
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