Mussolini, Hitler, and Stalin all came to power in the interwar years. How did the
conditions and crises of this period shape their attitudes and agendas?
How, in turn, didthese leaders shape the character and course of European affairs in this period?How did the conditions and crises of this period shape their attitudes and agendas?Mussolini●Italy was weak following WWI○people resented their government because of economic turmoil●He knew the people needed a strong leader to restore power●Italian government failed to win favorable terms of the Treaty of Versailles●Political crisis and growing number of violent Blackshirts led to his appointment as PM●Anti-communist message was well-received after the rise of communism from the success of the Russian RevolutionHitler●Reparations after WWI made Germany economically weak●Wanted to restore Germany’s pride●Faced harsh terms from the Treaty of Versailles●Many people, including Hitler, believed they were being treated unfairly●Economic problems, inflation and political uncertainty made the government unpopularStalin●After Lenin’s death, there was a five year struggle power struggle of who would succeed
as Supreme Leader●Faced heavy military loss after WWI and Russian Revolution●Lenin and other communists believed western democracies failed them●Resentful people were drawn to extremist ideasHow, in turn, did these leaders shape the character and course of European affairs in thisperiod?Mussolini●Becomes PM●Dismantles democracy●Encouraged entry into WWI ○Believed it would be the turning point for Italy and create a new type of state●emphasized a political program that promoted nationalism, demanded repression of socialists, and called for a strong political leader●Promoted fascism●Eliminate all other political parties, curb freedom of the press, and outlaw free speech and association●Formed close alliance with Nazi GermanyHitler●Became chancellor●Nazis begin eliminating all working-class and liberal opposition●suppressed German communist and socialist parties
●did away with all constitutional and civil rights; outlawed all other parties●Destroyed trade unions, prevented collective bargaining, and prohibited strikes●Government oversaw all functions of the economy and all education and speech was controlled○Planned economy in which the unemployed were put to work on government projects, working hours were shortened to open up jobs, and labor was forbiddento organize●Persecution of Jews, gypsies, and other groups was central feature of his plan to conquer all of Europe●Eventually with Italy, became "friendly" with Mussolini and formalized their political, military, and ideological alliance with the Stalin●Replaced Lenin's New Economic Policy with an even more ambitious plan for rapid economic development - Five Year Plans●Transform the Soviet Union from a predominantly agricultural country to a leader industrial power○