Drugs that induce a state in which the cns is altered

Info icon This preview shows pages 5–7. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
drugs that induce a state in which the CNS is altered to produce varying degrees of Pain relief Depression of consciousness Skeletal muscles relaxation Reflex reduction Inhalational anesthetics: volatile liquids or gases that are vaporized in oxygen and inhaled Inhaled gas: nitrous oxide (laughing gas) Inhale volatile liquids: ethrane, fluothane, forance, and penthrane Parenteral anesthetics: administered intravenously to induce or maintain general anesthesia or amnesia (can be used adjunct to inhalation-type anesthetics) Such as: etomidate, ketamine, methohexital, propofol, thiamylal, and thiopental Adjunct Drugs: Sedatives-hypnotics, opioid analgesics, neuromuscular blocking drugs, and anticholinergics are used to inhibit normal functions Mechanisms of Actions Orderly and systematic reduction of sensory and motor CNS functions Progressive depression of cerebral and spinal corn functions Indications General anesthesia is used during surgical procedures to produce: unconsciousness, skeletal muscles relaxation, visceral smooth muscles relaxation, rapid onset to quickly metabolize and also used in electroconvulsive therapy treatments for depression. Adverse Effects The adverse effects vary according to dosage and drug used Site that are primarily affected: Heart, peripheral circulation, liver, kidneys, respiratory Myocardial depression is commonly seen Malignant Hyperthermia (MOST COMMON RISK) Occurs during or after general anesthesia or use of the NMBC succinylcholine Sudden elevation in body temperature (greater than 104. F) Tachypnea, tachycardia, muscle rigidity Life-threatening emergency Treated with dantrolene Moderate Sedation Also called conscious sedation, or procedural sedation- this type of anesthesia
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
does not necessarily cause complete loss of consciousness and does not normally cause respiratory arrest Combination of an IV benzodiazepine and an opiate analgesic this causes anxiety and sensitivity to pain to be reduced and patient cant recall the procedure This preserves the patients ability to maintain own airway and respond to verbal commands Used for diagnostic procedures and minor surgical procedures that do not require deep anesthesia Topical anesthesia may be applied as well Rapid recovery time and greater safety profile than general anesthesia Local Anesthetics: Regional anesthetics Used to render a specific portion of the body insensitive to pain Interferes with nerve impulse transmission to specific areas of the body Does not cause a loss of consciousness Topical: Applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes comes in forms of creams, solutions, ointments, gels, ophthalmic drops, lozenges, and suppositories Parenteral: Injected intravenously or into the CNS by spinal injection techniques Types of local anesthesia Spinal or intraspinal Intrathecal Epidural Infiltration Nerve Block Topical Type of parenteral anesthetics Lidocaine Mepivacaine
Image of page 6
Image of page 7
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern