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That surround the cells chemical precursor to bile

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that surround the cells Chemical precursor to bile, Vitamin D, and steroid hormones Most of the cholesterol is synthesized by the body and some has a dietary origin 55 LDL vs. HDL HDL - carries “old” cholesterol that has been discarded by cells back to the liver for recycling or excretion Some experts believe that HDL removes excess cholesterol from arterial plaque, thus slowing its buildup LDL - Transport cholesterol from the liver to tissues that incorporate it into cell membranes 56 Cholesterol Transport 58 Function of Steroids Hormones Sex hormones testosterone estrogen Cortisol (“stress hormone”) increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels and has an immunosuppressive action inflammatory control (hydrocortisone) 59 Check For Understanding Name three categories of lipids. What two lipids are commonly found in the cell membrane? What is the difference between HDL & LDL molecules? What is the structural difference between a triglyceride and a phosopholipid? Name three types of steriod molecules. 60
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VII. Nucleic Acids 61 Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acid Organic substance, found in all living cells, in which the hereditary information is stored and from which it can be transferred monomer - _____________ polymer - polynucleotide 62 Nucleic Acid Functions Nucleic Acid Functions Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary/___________ information. 63 Types of Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids make up what we call our “genes” Two kinds DNA RNA VIII. Proteins 65 Proteins Proteins a functional polymer composed of amino acids monomer - ______________ polymer - polypeptide 66 Glutamine
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1. Name This Reaction 2. Name This Reaction Check for Understanding Protein Functions Protein Functions: Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes. These proteins are called enzymes Some form important cellular structures Some transport substances in and out of the cell Can be used as a last resort energy source 68 IX. Chemical Reactions & Enzymes 69 Metabolism Metabolism the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down molecules Two types Anabolism builds _________ molecules (e.g. dehydration synthesis) Catabolism breaks down molecules (e.g. hydrolysis) Chemical Reactions Chemical Reactions breaking of old and formation of new chemical bonds that result in new substances Reactants Products Yield Arrow 71 Activation Energy Activation energy “Start-up” energy for a reaction to occur Reduced by enzymes Allows reactions to occur faster than if enzymes weren’t present 72
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Enzymes Enzymes _______________ the rate of reaction (biological catalyst) Enzymes are specific (Shape determines function) They catalyze only one type of reaction Can be ____________ Usually made of proteins Most end with the suffix -ase 73 Enzymes Enzymes facilitate both anabolic and catabolic chemical reactions.
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