I had bad thoughts about my sister my sister got sick

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"I had bad thoughts about my sister. My sister got sick. Therefore I made my sister sick". Because the bad thoughts and the sister's sickness occurred around the same time, the child assumes illogically that one cause the other. Egocentrism : Egocentrism is an inability to see things from another's points of view. A classic Piagetian experiment knows as the mountain task illustrates egocentric thinking. A child would sit on a chair facing a table on which were three large mounds. The experimenter would place of
Developmental Psychology (PSY505) VU ©Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 38 doll on another chair, on the opposite side of the table, and would ask the child to tell or show how the "mountains' looks to the doll. Young children could not answer the question instead; they persistently described the mountains from their perspective. Piaget took this as proof that they could not imagine a different point of view (Piaget & Inhelder 1967). Egocentrism, to Piaget, is not selfishness but self-centered understanding, and it is fundamental to the limited thinking of young children. Egocentrism is a form of cent ration. These children are so centered on their own point of view that they cannot take in another's view at the same time. Three year-olds are not as concentric as new-born babies, who cannot distinguish between the universe and their own bodies; but young children still think that the universe center on them. SPEECH DISORDERS Though there are many different childhood speech disorders, psychological disturbance appears to be implicated in only two of these conditions' 1 delayed and stuttering. Delayed speech - Most children say their first words within a few months after their first birthday. And between eighteen and twenty four months, they usually begin to formulate two or three-word sentences there are wide individual differences in this schedule, and a few months delay in developing normal speech is rarely thought to have any diagnostic significance. Some normal children being to speak much later than others. Albert Einstein, for example, did not utter his first words until he was fully three years old. However, a prolonged delay in speaking is usually taken very seriously, as possible indication of an organic or functional disorder. In some cases, failure to speak is an early sign of autism, deafness, mental retardation, or some other specific form of brain damage. Often, however, there is more manageable, function cause lack of encouragement or verbal stimulation from the parents, a trauma such as hospitalization or an\ long separation from the parents, or a discouragement of the child's independence on the part of the parents. Stuttering - Stuttering refers to the interruption of speech fluency through blocked, prolonged, or repeated words, syllables, or sounds. Many people stutter on occasion: and speech hesitation in young children is a very common phenomenon. Consequently, with stuttering as with so many other childhood disorders, it is often difficulties to decide

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