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2. b) Extended. An extended argument consists of a central or main conclusion, with several other sub-conclusions supported throughout the argument. In this case, there are at least two conclusions, including the main conclusion. See p. 82. 3. c) This is the most boring class ever.A conclusion indicator word or phrase is used to indicate that what follows is a claim that other claims try to support or establish. “Therefore” serves that purpose, so what follows it must be a conclusion. See pp. 84–85. 4. b) We actually have to do the reading; I mean.A premise indicator word or phrase is used to indicate that what follows is a reason or a piece of evidence for a conclusion. “I mean” serves that purpose, so what follows it must be a premise. See pp. 84–85. 5. a) Conclusion 1: This is the most boring class ever. Premise 1: We actually have to do the reading. Premise 2: We can’t have class outside. Premise 3: The tests are really hard. Conclusion 2: The class is really unfair. Premise 4: Unfair classes are boring. A conclusion is whatever receives support from another claim; a premise is whatever gives support to another claim. See pp. 89, 93, 95 for examples. Passage 71. b) Explanation. For it to be an explanation, there must some account of the causes of an event. In this case, we have two possible explanations offered for the flowers dying. Since the passage considers two, and doesn’t make a decision, it could become an argument by trying to persuade an audience that one is right or the other is wrong. But, it doesn’t take that step. See pp. 92–96. Passage 81. c) Unclear case. We cannot tell whether it is an argument or explanation when it could reasonably be interpreted either way. That is, there could be a point of controversy, which would make it an argument. There could also be an account offered of the causes of something. When a passage is ambiguous, the best one can do is note the ambiguity. See pp. 84–85, 87–91, 93–96.
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