An Alternative Model for Temporary Groups with Deadlines 1. Temporary groups with deadlines don’t seem to follow the usual five-stage model. Studies indicate they have their own unique sequencing of actions (or inaction). a. Their first meeting sets the group’s direction. b. This first phase of group activity is one of inertia. c. A transition takes place at the end of this phase, which occurs exactly when the group has used up half its allotted time. d. A transition initiates major changes. e. A second phase of inertia follows the transition. f. The group’s last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity. This pattern, called the punctuated-equilibrium model , is shown in Exhibit 9-2 (slide 9-9) . III. Group Properties: Roles, Norms, Status, Size, and Cohesiveness A. Introduction 1. Work groups are not unorganized mobs; they have properties that shape members’ behavior and help ex-plain and predict individual behavior within the group as well as the performance of the group itself. 2. Some of these properties are roles, norms, status, size, cohesiveness, and diversity. B. Group Property 1: Roles (slide 9-10) 1. Introduction a. All group members are actors, each playing a role. b. A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. c. We are required to play a number of diverse roles, both on and off our jobs. d. Many of these roles are compatible; some create conflicts. e. Different groups impose different role requirements on individuals. 2. Role perception: One’s view of how one is supposed to act in a given situation is a role perception. a. We get these perceptions from stimuli all around us—friends, books, movies, television. b. The primary reason that apprenticeship programs exist is to allow beginners to watch an “expert,” so that they can learn to act as they are supposed to. 3. Role expectations: How others believe you should act in a given situation. a. How you behave is determined to a large extent by the role defined in the context in which you are acting. b. The psychological contract is an unwritten agreement that exists between employees and their employer. i. It sets out mutual expectations—what management expects from workers, and vice versa. c. If role expectations as implied are not met, expect negative effects on employee performance and satisfaction. 4. Role conflict: At the extreme, two or more role expectations are mutually contradictory. a. It exists when compliance with one role requirement may make more difficult the compliance with another.