such as being considerate and supportive, and is strongly associated with leadership effectiveness. we likely will see more women in elite leadership roles with (1) changes in workplace norms and developmental opportunities for women, (2) greater gender equity in domestic responsibilities, (3) greater negotiation power of women, especially regarding the work–home balance, (4) the effectiveness and predominance of women-owned businesses, and (5) changes in the incongruity between women and leadership. A consideration of the effects of gender on leadership has important implications for a comprehensive understanding of leadership. Contemporary approaches to gender and leadership involve questions that directly affect leadership success, such as style and effectiveness differences between men and women, and the varied barriers confronting women. Gender is integral to contemporary notions of effective leadership styles that have morphed from a traditional masculine, autocratic style to the more feminine or androgynous styles of democratic and transformational leadership. Developing a more androgynous conception of leadership will enhance leadership effectiveness by giving
people the opportunity to engage in the best leadership practices, and not by restricting people to those behaviors that are most appropriate for their gender. Understanding the obstacles that make up the labyrinth and tactics to eradicate the inequality will make it easier for women to reach top positions. The labyrinth has many barriers, and the necessary changes occur at many levels, ranging from individual and interpersonal levels to organizational and societal levels. Prejudice plays an important role in the interpersonal and individual levels; the first step in dealing with these biases is to become aware of them in others and in ourselves. Women are faced with the problem of needing to bolster their leadership competence with appropriate “femaleness”: Adopting behaviors such as individualized consideration and inspirational motivation is a promising approach to overcome these biased expectations. In addition, women’s use of effective negotiation techniques can aid them in procuring the resources they need at work and at home to augment their leadership advancement.
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- Fall '13