30 main content 31 the systems theories the systems

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3.0 MAIN CONTENT 3.1 The Systems Theories The systems management theory sees an organisation as a structure with many parts that function together to form a whole. The theory emphasises that one part of a system enables us to know something about another part, and that a change in one part of the system will affect other components of the system and its environment, Anaeto, Onabajo and Osifeso (2008:147). Scholars of this school of thought content that the whole is more than the sum total of all the parts (see ).
MAC 412 MODULE 5 147 Aina (2002:25) gave the basic assumptions of the systems theory as follows: a. An organisation of many inter-related parts which function for the attainment of organisational goals. b. Co-operation between separated departments ensures increased output, unlike what would have happened if each had functioned in isolation. c. There are continuous interactions between organisations and their environment for input - output department. Organisations that do not interact with their environment operate closed system and those that do otherwise operate open system. d. The element of feedback is necessary for effective functioning of an organisation as a system. Through feedback mechanisms, managements get vital information for self assessment and correction. This enables them to adjust to changes or become adaptive. This adaptive nature is called “homeostatic equilibrium”. Applied to media organisation management, the systems theory will go a long way towards avoiding unnecessary duplication of duties. This is perhaps the reason for departmentalisation of media organisations even though each department depends on the other to function. For instance, a live studio of a typical television station needs the assistance of the control room to function. The news and current affairs unit depends on the engineering department, production department, administrative unit, programming unit, marketing/commercial or adverts unit, finance unit, security department, clerical officers, cleaners, etc. All these units function as a system to achieve the organisation’s objectives. 3.2 The Socio-Technical Systems Theories Closely related to the systems theory is the socio-technical systems theory. This theory explains the relationship between organisational strictures and technologies. Advocates of this school such as Joan Woodward, and Eric Trist believe that employee’s job in an organisation is determined by the technology in use because the technologies determine the work methods. Those in this school anchor their arguments on the fact that technologies determine and even impose the work methods.
MAC 412 MEDIA MANAGEMENT 148 3.3 Contingency Theories This is one of the contemporary theories of management. It is otherwise referred to as situational approach to management. Contingency theory basically believes that when managers take decisions, they must take into account all aspects of the current situation and act on those aspects that are key to the situation at hand.

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