Best way to reduce indian children was to send them

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Best way to “reduce” Indian children was to send them to English schools Forced to speak English to ensure that “all may speak one and the same language” English protestants established English-medium schools in Indian “praying towns” (but they largely failed due to lack of resources, depression, disease, and defection) In the 18 th and 19 th centuries developed into the residential schools in the US and Canada, which were rife with abuses up until the final school shut down in 1996. o Savage people needed to be converted o Puritans would not adopt Indian children so establishing schools helped them learn the languages § Even after learning the language and customs of the Europeans, they were not recognized by the European countries § The Indians would view them not as one of them as well o Due to diseases and war, the Indian population decreased to 75% October 12, 2017 Clicker Question: When lame deer compares circles and squares, he is contrasting…? Historical events leading to Wounded Knee ü Indian Removal Act (1830) ü Removal of Cherokee Nation, from which the term “Trail of Tears” derives (1838) ü Pres. Grant’s peace policy” (1868-1878) ü US Government opens reservations to all Christian denominations for missionizing ü Religious Crime Codes (1884) o The government banned the sun dance and pitted the religion against each other (Christianity vs Ingenious). Native tradition were banned and there were legal consequences. ü General Allotment (Dawes) Act (1887) o Further break up native lands and allotted to individuals. This stemmed from the idea of private property and ownership. This caused tribes to break up and assimilation. ü Prophet Wovoka has his vision (1889) o Wovoka was originally named Jack Wilson. He had a vision in Jan 1, 1889 where he talked to God and God wanted him to each them love and peace. If they listened then they would be able to live in unison, if not, then they would wipe out the whites. If they successfully danced in a circle with as many indigenous people then it would exterminate the European race. It was also known as the Ghost Dance. This myth is traveling along with the dance. In 1890, the US government criminalized the Ghost Dance, but the Lakota Sioux continued to dance. On the morning of December 29, 1890, US solders killed more than 150-300 unarmed Oglala Sioux. This event was known as the Massacre at Wounded Knee.
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Ritual as a Remembering of Collective Histories (myth) In 1973, members of the American Indian Movement (AIM) occupied Wounded Knee for 71 days to protest conditions on the reservation. During the 71-day protest, federal officers and AIM members exchanged gunfire almost nightly. Hundreds of arrests were made; 2 native Americans were killed. The leaders of AIM surrendered on May after a negotiated (need to finish) Commonalities across Native Religions Traditional beliefs passed down through storytelling, oral histories, myths Ceremony and ritual (sometimes with healing shamans) Use of plats to enter mental or spiritual states Scared land/geography Belief in spirits (Great Spirit, sun, the four directions, sky, earth, etc.)
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