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major factors in preventing acute bronchitis.o Signs and symptoms: dry irritating cough andexpectorates a scanty amount of mucoid sputum, mayhave sternal soreness from coughing, fever, chills, nightsweats, headache and general malaise. As the infectionprogresses, the patient may be short of breath, have noisyinspiration and expiration (inspiratory stridor andexpiratory wheeze), and produce purulent sputum. Insevere tracheobronchitis, blood-streaked secretions maybe expectorated as a result of the irritation of the mucosaof the airways.o Medical management: Antibiotics depending onsymptoms, increased fluid intake, suctioning andbronchoscopy may be needed to remove secretions.Copious thick secretions may cause development ofpneumonia. Increasing vapor pressure in the air reducesairway irritation. Cool vapor therapy, steam inhalations,moist heat to the chest and mild analgesics.o Nursing management: Encourage bronchial hygiene,such as increased fluid intake and directed coughing toremove secretions. Encourages and assists the patient tosit up and frequently cough effectively to preventretention of mucopurulent sputum. If antibiotics areprescribed, expressing the need to complete full course isneeded. Cautions the patient against overexertion, whichcan induce a relapse or exacerbation of the infection. Thepatient is advised to rest.• Pneumonia: an inflammatory process in the lungs thatproduces excess fluid. It is triggered by an infectiousorganism or by the aspiration of an irritant, such as fluid or aforeign object.Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) sixthleading cause of death for people over 65.• Risk factors:abdominal or thoracic surgery, > 65 years old,air pollution, altered LOC, chronic disease,immunosuppressed, resident of long term care facility,smoking, tracheal intubation, upper respiratory infection; riskfactors for pneumonia : smoker, sleep apnea, pain, NGT,COPD , immobilityo Community-acquired (CAP):Pneumonia occurring inthe community or ≤48 hours after hospital admission orinstitutionalization of patients who do not meet thecriteria for health care–associated pneumonia (HCAP).
▪Acute infection of the lung, patients who have notbeen hospitalized or resided in a long-term carefacility with 14 Days of onset(? From notes).o Health care–associated (HCAP):Pneumonia occurring