Energy_Storage_Technologies.pdf

Batteries polysulfide bromide batteries and zinc

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batteries, polysulfide-bromide batteries, and zinc-bromine batteries will be described, and these are three flow battery designs. Other Advanced Rechargeable Batteries Flow batteries are one of three categories identified by [1] as “advanced rechargeable batteries”. The other categories are high-temperature systems, with examples being sodium sulfur and sodium nickel chloride batteries, and lithium systems, with lithium-ion batteries one example. Each of those examples is addressed in greater detail later in the sections that follow. 6
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Storage Technology Basics Cost Breakdown 2.2 Cost Breakdown In this report, costs for each technology are presented in a common framework such that for any technology, given the desired power and energy requirements of the system, one can estimate the range of total system costs. This methodology has been presented in numerous studies from Sandia National Laboratory, EPRI-DOE, and other organizations studies [2,3,5,6]. Cost Breakdown System costs are based on many factors and vary widely from system to system. In order to present costs in a systematic fashion, they can be divided into 5 categories: 1. Energy Storage System Costs This is the overnight capital cost of the storage device itself, and is typically given in two parts: Power Capacity Cost [$/kW] and Energy Capacity Cost [$/kWh]. By dividing the cost this way, there is an inherent assumption that the energy capacity and power capacity are independent, which is not true for all systems. By way of example, this assumption is true for flow batteries and pumped hydroelectric storage, but not true for traditional secondary batteries and flywheels. However, since most systems can be scaled up by interconnecting multiple units in series/parallel combinations, it will be assumed that this methodology correctly approximates the system costs. 2. Power Conversion System Costs (PCS) [$/kW]: This category consists of all components between the storage device and the utility grid including power conditioning equipment, control systems, power lines, transformers, system isolation equipment, and safety sensors. 3. Balance of Plant Costs (BOP) [$/kW]: This category encompasses construction costs and engineering, land, access routes, taxes, permits, and fees. 4. Operation and Maintenance (OM) Fixed Costs [$/kW-yr]: This is an annual costs for the routine maintenance required to keep the system operational. The units for this cost are dollars per kW of installed capacity, per years of operation (so Fixed OM costs of 5$/kW-yr for a 1kW system would cost $5 per year). 5. Operation and Maintenance (OM) Variable Costs [$/kWh-delivered]: This is a cost based on the amount of energy delivered by the device that accounts for any costs incurred based on system usage. These costs are typically extremely low for energy storage systems and therefore are assumed to be significantly less than all other costs, and therefore ignored.
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