20160202_Chemistry_6A_chapter_5_ForTed

Hunds rule for orbitals in the same subshell

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Hund’s Rule: for orbitals in the same subshell, electrons fill each orbital singly before any orbital gets a second electron
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Using the Periodic Table to Determine the Aufbau Order
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Practice: Electron Configurations F S Ca Ti Ge
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Condensed Electron Configurations Neon completes the 2 p subshell. Sodium marks the beginning of a new row. So, we write the condensed electron configuration for sodium as Na: [Ne] 3 s 1 [Ne] represents the electron configuration of neon. Core electrons: electrons in inner (lower n) energy levels Valence electrons: electrons in the outer- most energy level (highest n)
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Practice: Condensed Electron Configurations Al Co Y Sn
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Unusual Electron Configurations In nature, some elements have electron configurations we would not expect. Some important exceptions to electron configuration rules: Cr = [Ar] 4s 1 3d 5 Cu = [Ar] 4s 1 3d 10 Ag = [Kr] 5s 1 4d 10 Au = [Xe] 6s 1 5d 10
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Electron Configurations of Ions When writing the electron configuration for an ion, start with the electron configuration of the corresponding neutral atom. For a negative ion: Add electrons to the next available orbitals For a positive ion: Remove electrons from the OUTER-MOST energy level (even if that is not the last orbital electrons were added to)
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Electron Configurations of Ions F - N 3- Ca 2+ Fe 3+ Cr 2+
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Orbital Diagrams Visual Representations of Electron Configurations Each line (or circle) represents an orbital Each arrow represents an electron The rules of electron configurations are followed Nitrogen 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s Energy
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Drawing Orbital Diagrams First, write out the electron configuration Start drawing the orbital diagram 1 blank (orbital) for every s subshell: ____ 3 blanks (orbitals) for every p subshell: ____ ____ ____ 5 blanks for every d subshell: ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ Example: Fe
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Electron Configuration Terms Isoelectronic Refers to atoms and ions that have the same electron configuration (ie. The same number of electrons) Unpaired Electron The lone electron in an orbital Paired Electron An electron of two electrons in an orbital
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Using Orbital Diagrams to Determine Quantum Numbers Write out the orbital diagram for elemental fluorine. Write a set of quantum numbers (n, l, m l , m s ) for: The third electron of the F atom The eighth electron of an F atom
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Electron Configuration Terms Paramagnetic A substance that is attracted to a magnetic field Elements or compounds with unpaired electrons are paramagnetic Diamagnetic A substance that is NOT attracted to a magnetic field Elements or compounds with ALL of their electrons paired are diamagnetic
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Electron-Dot Diagrams 47 We can represent these valence electrons with electron-dot diagrams. Na Al S Cl
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What differentiates one family of elements from another? Remember that alkali metals Are shiny, soft, and low melting point metals Have anomalous reaction with O 2 React rapidly with water to form flammable H 2 gas and alkaline or basic solutions Fill in the electron configurations for the following alkali metals: Li Na K
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Properties of elements are dependent on their valence electrons!
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